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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the role of cells in organisms
  • Compare and contrast light microscopy and electron microscopy
  • Summarize cell theory

A cell is the smallest unit of a living thing. A living thing, whether made of one cell (like bacteria) or many cells (like a human), is called an organism. Thus, cells are the basic building blocks of all organisms.

Several cells of one kind that interconnect with each other and perform a shared function form tissues, several tissues combine to form an organ (your stomach, heart, or brain), and several organs make up an organ system (such as the digestive system, circulatory system, or nervous system). Several systems that function together form an organism (like a human being). Here, we will examine the structure and function of cells.

There are many types of cells, all grouped into one of two broad categories: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. For example, both animal and plant cells are classified as eukaryotic cells, whereas bacterial cells are classified as prokaryotic. Before discussing the criteria for determining whether a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic, let’s first examine how biologists study cells.


Cells vary in size. With few exceptions, individual cells cannot be seen with the naked eye, so scientists use microscopes (micro- = “small”; -scope = “to look at”) to study them. A microscope    is an instrument that magnifies an object. Most photographs of cells are taken with a microscope, and these images can also be called micrographs.

The optics of a microscope’s lenses change the orientation of the image that the user sees. A specimen that is right-side up and facing right on the microscope slide will appear upside-down and facing left when viewed through a microscope, and vice versa. Similarly, if the slide is moved left while looking through the microscope, it will appear to move right, and if moved down, it will seem to move up. This occurs because microscopes use two sets of lenses to magnify the image. Because of the manner by which light travels through the lenses, this system of two lenses produces an inverted image (binocular, or dissecting microscopes, work in a similar manner, but include an additional magnification system that makes the final image appear to be upright).

Light microscopes

To give you a sense of cell size, a typical human red blood cell is about eight millionths of a meter or eight micrometers (abbreviated as eight μm) in diameter; the head of a pin of is about two thousandths of a meter (two mm) in diameter. That means about 250 red blood cells could fit on the head of a pin.

Most student microscopes are classified as light microscopes ( [link] a ). Visible light passes and is bent through the lens system to enable the user to see the specimen. Light microscopes are advantageous for viewing living organisms, but since individual cells are generally transparent, their components are not distinguishable unless they are colored with special stains. Staining, however, usually kills the cells.

Questions & Answers

what is abiotic and biotic factors?
Hira Reply
which of the following shows the correct sequence of the cell cycle
Kameishia Reply
who is name virus
Shivam Reply
centromere consist of
meeting point of two chromatids
Explain the function of nematocysts in cnidarians?
Israel Reply
The nemotocyst is used by Cnidarians (hydra, jellyfish, sea anemones) to sting their prey and any threatening enemy.
photosynthesis in plants is an example of what ? (a) excretion (b) irritability (c) nutrition (d) reproduction
Lee Reply
If a Hox 13 gene in a mouse was replaced with a Hox 1 gene, how might this alter animal development?
Israel Reply
Which of the following organisms is most likely to be a diploblast?
what are reactions of photosynthesis?
Maria Reply
what are the probabilities of blood genotypes for the offspring from a cross between a mother lAlA blood and a father with lBi blood?
dayana Reply
what is matter
Emmanuel Reply
matter is anything that has mass and can occupied space
example of matter
You serves as an example of matter Because matter is anything that has mass and occupy space e.g man and every other things that exist on earth.. So think of every other things around you ...
and you too
We generally
What is ecological management
how the kidney functions as osmoregulatory organ
Sam Reply
That true
what is the major connection for sugars in glycolysis?
Ibrahim Reply
Simple term of science
Palesa Reply
what does it mean
it's means what do u know about biology?
what is immunisation
the action of making a person immune to infections ,for immunisation
what is the biology? what do you know about biology
Phathu Reply
biology is the study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin, and distribution.
The study of all aspects of life. The study of all living organisms (such as animal cells and plant cells) in greater detail (their structure and how they function). It's a very broad science.
what is prokaryotic
Bhaskar Reply
what is pathogens
pathogens are a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease.
transistion metals....
Wasik Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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