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Natuurwetenskappe

Ekosisteem en omgewingsbalans

Opvoeders afdeling

Memorandum

(a) ‘n Woud is ‘n stuk land oortrek met digte bome, struike, varings, ens., en diere. Hierdie plante en diere leef almal saam in die digte bosse.

Opdrag 1:

f)

-boom (produseerder)

-muis (primêre verbruiker)

-uil (sekondêre verbruiker)

-jakkals (tersiêre verbruiker)

Leerder afdeling

Inhoud

1. Inleiding

'n Ekosisteem word gevorm deur alle lewende organismes wat mekaar en hul omgewing onderling beïnvloed.

Die woord ekosisteem is afkomstig van die Griekse woord "oikos", wat huis of huishouding beteken. Net soos lede van 'n gesin saamwoon en mekaar en die gemeenskap ondersteun en beïnvloed (en op hul beurt daardeur geaffekteer en beïnvloed word), so leef organismes saam, plant voort en is vir kos van mekaar afhanklik. Daar is dus 'n hegte verhouding tussen organismes en die grond, son, water en lug.

Aktiwiteit: om ‘n duidelike begrip te kry van wat ‘n ekosisteem is [lu 1.3]

Kom ons bestudeer 'n voorbeeld van 'n ekosisteem:

(a) Wat is 'n woud?____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

'n Woud is baie meer as net 'n groot stuk land wat oortrek is met bome. Struike, wingerde, varings, mos en paddastoele groei in die skadu van die bome. Baie voëls, soogdiere, reptiele, amfibieë en insekte word in 'n woud aangetref. 'n Woud bestaan dus uit al hierdie plante en diere wat saamleef.

Die diere is van die plante afhanklik vir kos, terwyl die plante sonlig, water, minerale en koolstofdioksied gebruik om voedsel vir hulself en die ander organismes in die woud te vervaardig.

Die lewende organismes (plante en diere) tesame met die nie-lewende omgewing (lug, water, son en grond) vorm 'n ekosisteem.

(b) Tabuleer 'n voorbeeld van elk van die volgende wat in 'n woud gevind word.

Spesie My voorbeeld van 'n ....
voël __________________________
soogdier ________________________
reptiel ________________________
insek ________________________
amfibie ________________________

(c) Teken nou die vyf voorbeelde in die skets om dit te voltooi!

(d) Die Ekosisteemkonsep

Die interaksie tussen organisme en omgewing lei tot die ekosisteemkonsep, wat die interaksie tussen materie, energie en organisme noukeurig verwerk.

‘n ekosisteem

(e) Hoe groot is 'n ekosisteem?

'n Ekosisteem kan enige grootte wees, van 'n poel water op die sypaadjie tot die hele reënwoud in die Amasone of 'n nog groter gebied.

'n Woud, onder andere, vol bome, plante insekte en voëls, is 'n ekosisteem van sekere soorte organismes wat 'n sekere omgewing bewoon. Net so is 'n rots wat in die skadu van die woud staan en oortrek is met mos, rotsplante, inseklarwes en honderdpote ook 'n ekosisteem. Die sisteem is dus geïntegreer, met dele wat intiem met mekaar verband hou. Enigiets wat 'n deel van die sisteem affekteer, affekteer ook die res.

Opdrag 1:

  1. Bestudeer die onderstaande skets van 'n woudekosisteem:

Noem die:

produseerder:: _________________________________________________________

primêre verbruiker: _____________________________________________________

sekondêre verbruiker:: __________________________________________________

tersiêre verbruiker: _____________________________________________________

Primêre beteken eerste.

Sekondêre beteken tweede of minder belangrik.

Tersiêre beteken in hierdie geval derde.

2. Die ekosisteem

Dit is die lewende organismes tesame met die ________________________________

wat in 'n onafskeidbare, interaktiewe verhouding tot mekaar staan.

Die lewende deel kan soos volg onderverdeel word:

(a) voedselproduseerders meestal groen plante

(b) voedselverbruikers is makroverbruikers (diere wat ander organismes eet)

of

ontbinders (bakterieë of swamme wat dooie organismes opbreek)

Assessering

Leeruitkomste 1: Die leerder is in staat om met selfvertroue op weetgierigheid oor natuurlike verskynsels te reageer, en om binne die konteks van wetenskap, tegnologie en die omgewing verbande te ondersoek en probleme op te los.

Assesseringstandaard 1.3: Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder data evalueer en bevindings kommunikeer.

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Source:  OpenStax, Natuurwetenskappe graad 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 17, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11080/1.1
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