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Mean arterial pressure

Mean arterial pressure (MAP) represents the “average” pressure of blood in the arteries, that is, the average force driving blood into vessels that serve the tissues. Mean is a statistical concept and is calculated by taking the sum of the values divided by the number of values. Although complicated to measure directly and complicated to calculate, MAP can be approximated by adding the diastolic pressure to one-third of the pulse pressure or systolic pressure minus the diastolic pressure:

MAP = diastolic BP +  (systolic-diastolic BP) 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagyart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaeytaiaabgeacaqGqbGaaeiiaiaab2dacaqGGaGaaeizaiaabMgacaqGHbGaae4CaiaabshacaqGVbGaaeiBaiaabMgacaqGJbGaaeiiaiaabkeacaqGqbGaaeiiaiaabUcacaqGGaWaaSaaaeaacaqGOaGaae4CaiaabMhacaqGZbGaaeiDaiaab+gacaqGSbGaaeyAaiaabogacaqGTaGaaeizaiaabMgacaqGHbGaae4CaiaabshacaqGVbGaaeiBaiaabMgacaqGJbGaaeiiaiaabkeacaqGqbGaaeykaaqaaiaabodaaaaaaa@5BD7@

In [link] , this value is approximately 80 + (120 − 80) / 3, or 93.33. Normally, the MAP falls within the range of 70–110 mm Hg. If the value falls below 60 mm Hg for an extended time, blood pressure will not be high enough to ensure circulation to and through the tissues, which results in ischemia    , or insufficient blood flow. A condition called hypoxia    , inadequate oxygenation of tissues, commonly accompanies ischemia. The term hypoxemia refers to low levels of oxygen in systemic arterial blood. Neurons are especially sensitive to hypoxia and may die or be damaged if blood flow and oxygen supplies are not quickly restored.

Pulse

After blood is ejected from the heart, elastic fibers in the arteries help maintain a high-pressure gradient as they expand to accommodate the blood, then recoil. This expansion and recoiling effect, known as the pulse    , can be palpated manually or measured electronically. Although the effect diminishes over distance from the heart, elements of the systolic and diastolic components of the pulse are still evident down to the level of the arterioles.

Because pulse indicates heart rate, it is measured clinically to provide clues to a patient’s state of health. It is recorded as beats per minute. Both the rate and the strength of the pulse are important clinically. A high or irregular pulse rate can be caused by physical activity or other temporary factors, but it may also indicate a heart condition. The pulse strength indicates the strength of ventricular contraction and cardiac output. If the pulse is strong, then systolic pressure is high. If it is weak, systolic pressure has fallen, and medical intervention may be warranted.

Pulse can be palpated manually by placing the tips of the fingers across an artery that runs close to the body surface and pressing lightly. While this procedure is normally performed using the radial artery in the wrist or the common carotid artery in the neck, any superficial artery that can be palpated may be used ( [link] ). Common sites to find a pulse include temporal and facial arteries in the head, brachial arteries in the upper arm, femoral arteries in the thigh, popliteal arteries behind the knees, posterior tibial arteries near the medial tarsal regions, and dorsalis pedis arteries in the feet. A variety of commercial electronic devices are also available to measure pulse.

Pulse sites

This image shows the pulse points in a woman’s body.
The pulse is most readily measured at the radial artery, but can be measured at any of the pulse points shown.

Questions & Answers

what is metabolism
fred Reply
Chemical reaction that takes in place in the cell of a living organism that includes anabolism and Catobolism.
Norman
Catabolism*
Norman
metabolic chemical reaction is of two types, anabolism and catabolism. The break down of larger molecules into smaller molecules is called catabolism.
Ahmad
Metabolism is the chemical reaction that includes anabolism and catabolism
Kedha's
Anabolism is the chemical reaction that combines all the smaller quantities to make large
Kedha's
Catabolism is the chemical process that breaks larger quantities into small
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what's abdominal police?
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hcl
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hydrochloric acid is the stomach police
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its the stomach omentum
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description of the ears
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which component of mucus allows it to maintain local level of hydration
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can the teeth be classify under bones?
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Bony prominents
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what's a nervous system
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Is a the group of neurons and glial cells that work together to receive, integrate and responds appropriately to stimulus in the periphery, spinal cord and brain.
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study about internal structure, outer structure and their functions
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circulatory system on blood pressure
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(enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) is a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance.
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tr
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psychological strategies that are unconsciously used to protect a person from anxiety arising from unacceptable thoughts or feelings.
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difference between apocrine sweat glands and merocrine sweat glands
Binkheir Reply
I believe the apocrine sweat gland uses a sac under the hair follicle and the merocrine sweat gland releases directly on to the surface of the skin
Mark
normal blood volume in our body
pankaj Reply
5Litres
Albert
Normal blood volume in adults is 6 litres
Kedha's
4.7 to 5ltr.. normal for adult
Clangbhelle
what are the advantages of the concave shape of red blood cells?
Amy Reply
This structure is VERY flexible. It can allow these cells to get into the most tiny places in our bodies. a VERY good design! The advantage of red blood cells' biconcave shape is that the surface area is increased to allow more haemoglobin to be stored in the cell.
Saafi
They can stack so that they can move to capillaries
Nejat
what is the difference between phagocytosis and Pinosis
fred
action of gluteus medius and minimus
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Lateral rotation of the hip joint
Hertzo
Briefly explain location of ecg on a patient
Prince Reply
it is a machine that gives a graphical representation of heart beat
Nani
Briefly explain location of ecg leads on a patient?
Prince
in ecg we use electrical leads over the chest ,ancle and wrist
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what is the anatomical and function difference between paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia ?
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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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