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COMMON /USELESS/ KDO K=1,1000 IF (K .EQ. 1) CALL AUXENDDO

In this example, K has been declared as a COMMON variable. It is used only as a do-loop counter, so there really is no reason for it to be anything but local. However, because it is in a COMMON block, the call to AUX forces the compiler to store and reload K each iteration. This is because the side effects of the call are unknown.

So far, it looks as if we are preparing a case for huge main programs without any subroutines or functions! Not at all. Modularity is important for keeping source code compact and understandable. And frankly, the need for maintainability and modularity is always more important than the need for small performance improvements. However, there are a few approaches for streamlining subroutine calls that don’t require you to scrap modular coding techniques: macros and procedure inlining.

Remember, if the function or subroutine does a reasonable amount of work, procedure call overhead isn’t going to matter very much. However, if one small routine appears as a leaf node in one of the busiest sections of the call graph, you might want to think about inserting it in appropriate places in the program.

Macros

Macros are little procedures that are substituted inline at compile time. Unlike subroutines or functions, which are included once during the link, macros are replicated every place they are used. When the compiler makes its first pass through your program, it looks for patterns that match previous macro definitions and expands them inline. In fact, in later stages, the compiler sees an expanded macro as source code.

Macros are part of both C and FORTRAN (although the FORTRAN notion of a macro, the statement function , is reviled by the FORTRAN community, and won’t survive much longer). The statement function has been eliminated in FORTRAN 90. For C programs, macros are created with a #define construct, as demonstrated here:


#define average(x,y) ((x+y)/2) main (){ float q = 100, p = 50;float a; a = average(p,q);printf ("%f\n",a); }

The first compilation step for a C program is a pass through the C preprocessor, cpp . This happens automatically when you invoke the compiler. cpp expands #define statements inline, replacing the pattern matched by the macro definition. In the program above, the statement:


a = average(p,q);

gets replaced with:


a = ((p+q)/2);

You have to be careful how you define the macro because it literally replaces the pattern located by cpp . For instance, if the macro definition said:


#define multiply(a,b) (a*b)

and you invoked it as:


c = multiply(x+t,y+v);

the resulting expansion would be x+t*y+v — probably not what you intended.

If you are a C programmer you may be using macros without being conscious of it. Many C header files ( .h ) contain macro definitions. In fact, some “standard” C library functions are really defined as macros in the header files. For instance, the function getchar can be linked in when you build your program. If you have a statement:


#include<stdio.h>

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, High performance computing. OpenStax CNX. Aug 25, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11136/1.5
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