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Natuurwetenskappe

Graad 9

Plante: van bou tot genetika

Module 25

Die mikroskoop

Plante, net soos alle ander lewende organismes, bestaan uit basiese eenhede of selle.

Die bou van selle kan mikroskopies ondersoek word. Om dit te kan doen, moet jy eers weet hoe ‘n mikroskoop werk. Dit sal verdere studiemoontlikhede ontsluit.

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om die werking van 'n mikroskoop te kan verduidelik

[lu 1.2; 1.3]

Jou onderwyser sal die bou van die mikroskoop met al sy dele met jou deurgaan, asook die hantering en alle reëls wat geld met die gebruik van sulke duur apparaat.

Aktiwiteit 2:

Om die verskillende dele van 'n mikroskoop te identifiseer

[lu 2.1; 2.2; 2.4]

Opdrag 1:

  1. Voltooi die byskrifte in die skets.
  2. Skryf die funksies van die dele in die tabel hieronder in:
Mikroskoopdeel Funksie
1. Oogstuk/ okulêr
2. Buis
3. Arm
4. Growwe stelskroef
5. Fyn stelskroef
6. Roterende neusstuk
7. Objektiewe/ lense
8. Klampe
9. Platform
10. Diafragma
11. Kondensor
12. Ligbron

3. Skryf enige belangrike hanteringsreëls neer:

4. Verduidelik hoe jy vergroting bepaal:

5. Wat is die vergroting waarop die mikroskoop waarmee jy werk, nou ingestel is? Toon jou berekening.

Assessering van Mikroskoopfunksies

Kon jy basiese dele onderskei en funksies gee?

[LU 1.2; LU 1.3]

Aktiwiteit 3:

Om die mikroskoop as apparaat te gebruik

[lu 1.2; lu 1.3]

Opdrag 1:

Werk in groepe saam en doen die volgende:

  1. Skryf met ‘n transparantpen op ‘n voorwerpglasie en kyk daarna onder lae vergroting.
  2. Skeur ‘n baie klein stukkie papier af, plaas dit op die glasie en besigtig.
  3. Kyk na iets van jou keuse, bv. ‘n klein dooie insek soos ‘n mier, of een van jou eie hare.
  4. Kyk na ‘n paar korrels suiker.

Teken dit wat jy sien op ‘n vel papier.

Opdrag 2:

Maak ‘n nat preparaat van ‘n stukkie epidermis van ‘n uieblaar. Jou onderwyser sal eers die tegniek demonstreer. Kyk eers onder lae, en daarna onder hoë vergroting.

Teken die preparaat soos met die blote oog gesien, en dan soos deur die mikroskoop gesien.

Die baksteenvormige strukture is selle. Die hele liggaam van alle plante en diere (die mens ingesluit) is uit selle opgebou.

Opdrag 3:

Skryf enige wenke neer wat jy kan gee t.o.v. hantering en die vind van die regte beeld noudat jy self ‘n mikroskoop hanteer het.

Hoekom sou jy die preparaat wou kleur met ‘n kleurmiddel?

Vra jou onderwyser watter kleurmiddel jy sou kon gebruik.

Assessering van Mikroskoop-prakties

Kon jy items hanteer en sketse voltooi?

[LU 1.2; LU 1.3]

Assessering

LU 1

Wetenskaplike Ondersoek

Die leerder is in staat om met selfvertroue op weetgierigheid oor natuurlike verskynsels te reageer, en om binne die konteks van wetenskap, tegnologie en die omgewing verbande te ondersoek en probleme op te los.

Dit word bewys as die leerder:

1.1 ondersoeke beplan;

1.2 ondersoeke uitvoer en data versamel;

1.3 data evalueer en bevindinge kommunikeer.

Memorandum

Opdrag 1:

Plante, net soos alle organismes, bestaan uit basiese eenhede of selle.

  • Die bou van selle kan mikroskopies ondersoek word. Om dit te kan doen, moet jy eers weet hoe werk ‘n mikroskoop. Dit sal verdere studiemoontlikhede ontsluit.

1. Byskrifte: volgens skets

2. Funksies van die dele

BOU VAN MIKROSKOOP

MIKROSKOOPDEEL FUNKSIE
Oogstuk/ okulêr Lens aan bopunt van buis, help met vergroting
Buis Ligstrale beweeg daardeur; plaas okulêr en objektiewe uit mekaar
Arm Vashoustuk
Growwe stelskroef Beweeg platform nader aan objektief; Aanvanklike fokus
Fyn stelskroef Fyne diep fokus
Roterende neusstuk Om objektiewe in posisie te skuif
Objektiewe/ lense Verskillende vergrotings moontlik
Klampe Hou mikroskoopskyfie in posisie
Platform Plasing van mikroskoopskyfie
Diafragma Beheer hoeveelheid lig wat deur voorwerp na oog gaan
Kondensor Konsentreer lig op voorwerp
Ligbron Gloeilampie of spieëltjie

Hantering van mikroskoop

1. Dra versigtig – gebruik beide hande

2. Moenie vingerafdrukke laat nie

3. Moet nooit lense verwyder nie

4. Versigtig met hoogste objektief

5. Hou mikroskoop vry van stof en klammigheid.

Vergroting

Waarde op objektief x waarde op okulêr

  • Bv. 10 x 40 = 400 x vergroot

OPDRAG 1:

Prakties

OPDRAG 2:

Nat preparaat

1. Neem mikroskoopskyfie/voorwerpglasie – vee skoon.

2. Plaas enkele druppel skoon water met drupper in die middel.

waterdruppelvoorwerpglasie

3. Neem voorwerp versigtig met tangetjie of dissekteernaald en plaas in waterdruppel. Vou oop en plat.

4. Neem naald en plaas regop in middel van voorwerp.

5. Plaas dekglasie skuins teen naald.

6. Neem naald vinnig weg sodat glasie in plek val.

7. Tik liggies met naald se agterkant die moontlike lugblasies uit.

8. Kleur met jodiumoplossing vir beter seldefinisie. Styselkorrels sou ook kleur.

PLANTSEL

Dit bestaan uit ‘n raamwerk met ‘n spesiale vloeistof – PROTOPLASMA – en verskeie strukture dryf daarin.

OPDRAG 3

  • Beheer die hoeveelheid lig versigtig met die kondensor
  • Fokus versigtig op en af wanneer jy met hoogste vergroting te make het
  • Kleuring: met jodiumoplossing vir beter seldefinisie.Styselkorrels sou ook kleur

Questions & Answers

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ninjadapaul
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The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
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Source:  OpenStax, Natuurwetenskappe graad 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11068/1.1
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