# 3.1 Forces and friction

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## [lo 1.1; lo 1.3; lo 3.1]

Write a report (three A4 sheets) on Isaac Newton and on his contribution to science. Also refer to the saying 'The apple never falls far from the tree'. Include your report in the module as extra pages following this one.

Assessment of RESEARCH

Were you able to find out who Isaac Newton was and do you understand his contribution to science?

[LO 1.1; LO 1.3; LO 3.1]

## [lo 2.3; lo 2.4]

The earth attracts all objects that are in its proximity.

• We know the following:
• all objects have mass and all masses exert tractive force (pull); this mostly is not observable;
• the greater the masses, the greater the tractive force; as the earth is large, we only observe tractive force in one direction (i.e. as the earth attracting our bodies);
• the closer the proximity between masses, the greater the tractive force between them.
• The mass of an object serves as an indication of the amount of matter and this is measured in
• The weight of an object signifies the amount of tractive force (pull) that the earth exerts on the particular object.
• The tractive force which attracts objects to the earth is known as gravitation .
• The unit for measuring force is NEWTON (N).

The weight of an object that has a mass of 100 g is 1 N

• This is roughly equal to the weight of a small banana or a small apple.

Questions:

1. ONE kilogram has a weight of .........................N.

2. Your mass will remain the same, no matter where you may be in the universe, but your weight will vary. Explain this. ( Refer to the module dealing with space programmes.)

3. What is your mass?..................................................

4. What is your weight?..................................................

5. What would your weight be on the moon where the tractive force is 0,6 N?

6. FORCE and WEIGHT are both measured in NEWTON. Explain this.

7. You are able to observe the effect exerted on an object by the force of attraction if you lift it up by means of an elastic band. This demonstrates the principle behind the SPRING BALANCE.

8. Describe the difference between a spring balance and a bathroom scale.

[LO 2.1; LO 2.3; LO 2.4]

## [lo 1.2; lo 2.4]

Measure the weight of a number of objects with the help of a calibrated spring balance.

• First measure the weight after suspending the object from the spring balance by means of a length of string.
• Then place the object on the floor and pull it along to get a reading. Note down both readings.
• Repeat each operation three times for each object.

Assessment of the ability to measure weight/force by means of a spring balance

[LO 1.2]

QUESTIONS

1. What is inside the spring balance to make it possible to take a measurement?

2. Why do the two readings differ?

3. What is the meaning of calibrated ?

4. What would the weight of a 2,5-kg bag of sugar be?

5. What is the purpose of the adjustment for zero on the spring balance?

6. Identify the forces that are present.

7. Distinguish between weight and mass.

#### Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11069/1.1
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