<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Natural sciences

Grade 8


Module 29

The ecosystem

ECOLOGY is the study of organisms in their natural environment and the interaction between them.


To be able to interpret representations of different ecological environments

[lo 2.2; lo 2.3]



2. What, are the basic components or parts of all ecological environments?

3. Bios is the Greek word for Life .

What, do you think, the following concepts mean? (Ask your teacher to explain.)

3.1 abiotic

3.2 biotic

3.3 factor

4. An ecological environment can be described as an ECOSYSTEM.

4.1 An ecosystem is

An ECOSYSTEM is, the living and non-living components of a certain environment and the interaction between the components.

The study of ecosystems and the interactions between the organisms and their environment is called ECOLOGY .


To examine part of a garden as an ecological environment (ecosystem)

[lo 1.1; lo 1.2; lo 2.1; lo 2.2]

Your teacher will arrange a visit to a suitable garden in your neighbourhood, or perhaps just to a part of your school grounds. It must be an area where the gardener does not work every day.

  • Why is that so?

1. Divide into groups and sit down in the garden. There must be quite a bit of space around each group. Sit absolutely still for at least five minutes.

2. Be aware of everything that can be observed.

3. Each group picks a single leaf (with permission) of each kind of plant that is visible in the area. Place it between two clean sheets of paper in a thick book. Give each plant your own name.

4. Count the number of plant and animal groups in your delimited area and tabulate the information below.

5. Make a list of all the non-living (abiotic) factors that determine the nature of the environment.

TYPE of organism (list own) NUMBER of organisms
TYPE of organism (list own) NUMBER of organisms

6. Abiotic factors:

Assessment of the GARDEN RESEARCH:

Were you able to carry out the assignment and write down results?

[LO 1.1; LO 1.2]

  • So far you have determined the following:

That a population is a group of similar organisms in a certain environment . The numbers in your column graph indicate the population size . The population size can be determined by using various methods and formulas.

The home of a plant or animal is called its habitat .

The role that is played by an organism in its environment refers to the “work” that it does, and is called its niche .

A community is made up of all the populations that occur in one area.

A herbarium is made by collecting and storing leaf material as you have done. Ask your teacher to tell you more about this. You could also research this topic on your own. Why don’t you ask your teacher to allocate some space in the classroom so that you can all exhibit your examples?

Let us see what you have learnt:

  • Do the following exercise. Write down a letter from Column B next to the number that is related to it from Column A. Write these letters in the squares.
1. The place where organisms are found. A. biotic
2. The number of organisms of one kind in an area. B. herbarium
3. Place where dried plant material is stored. C. habitat
4. Living part of the environment. D. population
5. All the populations in an environment. E. community
6. The role of an organism in its environment. F. ecology
7. The study of organisms in their environment. G. niche

Assessment of column exercise

Could you answer the questions successfully?

[LO 2.1]


LO 1: Scientific investigations:

The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

This is evident when the learner:

  • plans investigations;
  • conducts investigations and collects data.

LO 2: Constructing Science Knowledge:

The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

This is evident when the learner:

  • recalls meaningful information;
  • categorises information;

2.3 interprets information.


Activity : Interpreting representations of different ecological environments


1.. A defined area with all the living and non-living factors in it (biotic and a biotic components).

2. Light, air, water, soil, animals, plants.


3.1 a biotic: all non-living parts, e.g. air, water.

3.2 biotic: all living organisms, e.g. plants, animals.

3.3 factor: an element of cause that contributes to a result; the nature of something, e.g. an environment that has a determining effect.

4.a. An ecosystem is a particular area with all the living and non-living factors that determine the nature of the area, as well as the living organisms that occur in the area and interact with one another and with the non-living factors of the

Activity: Examining a section of the garden as an ecological environment (ecosystem)

The visit to the garden. Why must an uncultivated part of the garden be examined? The gardener should be persuaded to steer clear and not interfere.

Tables: learners compile their own lists:

Importance of location, date and time: A biotic factors vary continually and the behaviour and presence of organisms therefore also vary.

Column graph: Utilisation of both the X-axis and the Y-axis is important. The factor that affects the data or lends significance to it is entered on the x-axis. The effect of this factor is entered on the Y-axis. Ensure that the learners name the X- and Y-axes correctly and that they have a thorough grasp of the importance of it: X-axis: plant species; Y-axis: numbers representing each plant species.

Complete the following column-related question:

  1. C
  2. D
  3. B
  4. A
  5. E
  6. G
  7. F

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11050/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Natural sciences grade 8' conversation and receive update notifications?