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Literature review

This study will examine the teaching beliefs and practices of instructors using online courseware to teach graduate-level courses at a variety of colleges and universities in the U.S. The review of the literature consists of two parts:

  1. the online social environment and
  2. course management systems.

In the first section, the focus is the interaction in the online learning environment based. The two main topics included are the nature of asynchronous text-based communications and the use of course management systems. How the course management system shapes the course design and the communications conducted within the course is explored.

The online social environment

Kreijns, Kirschner, and Jochems (2003) found that because the online environment has the tools to build social context, many have mistakenly assumed that social interaction would automatically occur. The instructor must intentionally design activities and situations so the students to get to know each other at a distance. Students need to get to know their classmates and instructor through off-task communication in order to build trust. Walther’s study (1992) indicated that time spent engaging in social, non-course related communication within the online class context helped break down barriers between class participants with each other and with the instructor.

Before students will engage willingly in collaboration, they must trust one another, feel a sense of belonging, and feel close to each other ( Rourke, 2000 ). They need to feel that they will be treated sympathetically by the instructor and fellow students. If the instructor limits interactions to the cognitive content, feelings of trust may not develop. Students will likely feel anxious, defensive, and unable or unwilling to risk being vulnerable to exposure necessary to the learning process ( Kreijns et al., 2003; Rourke, 2000 ).

Faculty recounted that feedback is essential to cultivate the learning experience, as well as foster the connections to the institution ( Lewis&Abdul-Hamid, 2006 ). In face-to-face learning environments, students can develop confidence in participating in class discussions by making social comparisons to the performance of other students ( An&Kim, 2006 ). However, due to the lack of immediacy of feedback as well as the lack of cues such as facial expressions and body language in the asynchronous online course, it takes longer for students to develop trust and confidence with their peers than in face-to-face classes ( Walther, 1992 ). Instructors report that learning takes longer using computer-mediated communication and less material can be covered in a semester in the asynchronous, online environment ( Kreijins. 2003 ).

Online communication

Communication patterns between teacher and student are different in the online environment using text-based asynchronous communication from face-to-face interactions. The instructor must carefully craft instruction and model good communication to help the students build the affective realm of the online class. Trust building in online environments that takes place early in the semester through off-task social communication can increase feelings of trust, a sense of warmth and belonging, as well as closeness among the participants ( Rourke, 2000 ).

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
Commplementary angles
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
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I'm interested in nanotube
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Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Faculty use of courseware to teach counseling theories. OpenStax CNX. Oct 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11130/1.1
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