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| x ; x>0 f(x) = | 0 ; x=0| -x ; x<0

Modulus function

Modulus function

Clearly, at test point x=0,

L = f 0 = 0

This is an important result which gives us a method to determine limit of a function. If function is continuous, simply put the test value into function definition. The value of function is limit of function at that point.

Limit and discontinuity

If function rule changes exactly at the test point, then limit of the function, L, and value of function, f(a), are not same. In order to clearly understand the implication of the statement about inequality of limit and function value, we consider a modification to the modulus function :

| x; x>0 f(x) = | 1; x=0| -x; x<0

Modified modulus function

Modified modulus function

At test point x=0,

L = 0 f 0 = 1 L f 0

Therefore, limit of function exists at x=0 even though it is not equal to function value. This is an important result which gives us a method to determine limit of a piece-wise defined functions. We need to evaluate function from both left and right side. If limits are equal from both sides, then limit of function at test point is equal to either limit. However, if left and right limits are not equal then limit of function does not exist at the test point.

Limit and singularity

Singularity or exception point is a point where function is not defined. It is outside definition of function. However, function can point (or tend or approach) to a value at a point where it is not defined. Limit as we know estimate value from a close point where function exits and can project a value based on function definition at points very close to exception point. Consider limit of a rational function :

lim x 1 x - 1 x + 3 x - 1

Rational function

Rational function

The singularity of function is obtained by setting denominator to zero. Thus, singularity exists at x=1. We want to know nature of function about this point. In other words, we want to know what would have been the value of function at this point had the function been defined there. For this, we need to evaluate left and right limit at this point. Graphically, there is a hole in the graph of the function. How can we estimate value of function at a point if it is not defined there ?

We keep linear factor in the denominator to know singularity. Extrapolating value at the singularity is a reverse process. We need to calculate function value in the neighborhood, where function is defined. For this, we require to remove linear factor from the denominator. Canceling out (x-1) from both numerator and denominator, we have :

lim x 1 x - 1 x + 3 x - 1 = lim x 1 x + 3 = 4

Thus, function is not defined at x=1, but its limit at the point is 4. This means that nature of function in its immediate vicinity is such that the function should have attained a value of 4 had it been estimated on the basis of nature of function in the neighborhood.

This is again an important result which gives us a method to determine limit of a function, when function is not defined at certain point or has other indeterminate or meaningless forms. We need to simplify function expression till we get a form which can be evaluated.

Questions & Answers

what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.
Mapo Reply
The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.
Mapo Reply
What is power set
Satyabrata Reply
Period of sin^6 3x+ cos^6 3x
Sneha Reply
Period of sin^6 3x+ cos^6 3x
Sneha Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Functions. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10464/1.64
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