# Physics in the science of complex systems - draft 0

 Page 1 / 1
physics course for non-physicist complex systems researchers

## Physics in the science of complex systems – draft 0

The lectures are organized in lessons within thematic courses.

## Thermal and statistical physics

The main chapters are copied from the courses of Harvey Gould and Jan Tobochnik , Clark University, Worcester, MA, USA. If not, the source is precised intobrackets.

## Lesson 1

• Introduction
• Some qualitative observations
• Doing work
• Quality of energy

## Lesson 2

• Some simple simulations
• Work, heating, and the first law of thermodynamics
• The fundamental need for statistical approach
• Time and ensemble averages

## Lesson 3

• Models of matter

The ideal gas

Interparticle potentials

Lattice models

• Importance of simulations
• Summary

## Lesson 4

• Introduction
• The system
• Thermodynamic equilibrium
• Temperature
• Pressure equation of state

## Lesson 5

• Some thermodynamic processes
• Work
• The first law of thermodynamics
• Energy equation of state

## Lesson 6

• Heat capacity and enthalpy
• The second law of thermodynamics
• The thermodynamic temperature

## Lesson 7

• The second law and heat engine
• Entropy changes
• Equivalence of thermodynamic and ideal gas scale temperatures
• The thermodynamic pressure

## Lesson 8

• The fundamental thermodynamic relation
• The entropy of an ideal gas
• The third law of thermodynamics
• Free energies

## Lesson 9

• Introduction
• A simple example of a thermal interaction
• Counting microstates

Non-interacting spins

One-dimensional Ising model

A particle in a one-dimensional box

One-dimensional harmonic oscillator

A particle in a two-dimensional box

Two non-interacting identical particles and the semi-classical limit

Lesson 10

• The number of states of N non-interacting particles: semi- classical limit
• The microcanonical ensemble (fixed E, V, and N)
• Systems in contact with a heat bath: the canonical ensemble (fixed T, V, and N)
• Connection between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics

## Lesson 11

• Simple applications of the canonical ensemble
• Example of a simple thermometer
• Simulations of the microcanonical ensemble
• Simulations of the canonical ensemble

## Lesson 12

• Grand canonical ensemble (fixed T, V, and )
• Entropy and disorder
• The volume of a hypersphere
• Fluctuations in the canonical ensemble
• Molecular dynamics

(Course from North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA:

## Lesson 13

1.4.1 Introduction

1.4.2 Maxwell relations

1.4.3 Applications of the Maxwell relations

Internal energy of an ideal gas

Relation between the specific heats

## Lesson 14

1.4.4 Applications to irreversible processes

The Joule or free expansion process

Joule-Thomson process

• Equilibrium between phases

Equilibrium conditions

Clausius-Clapeyron equation

Simple phase diagrams

Pressure dependence of the melting point

Pressure dependence of the boiling point

The vapor pressure curve

Lesson 15

• Lattice gas and Ising model

(Introduction to lattice gas from Victor Batista, Chemistry department, Yale University, New Haven, NE, USA:

(Applet of ising model, from A. Peter young, Physics department, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA:

http://bartok.ucsc.edu/peter/java/ising/keep/ ising.html)

• Phase transitions

(Generalities from Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Phase_transition)

• A geometric phase transition: percolation

(Lectures notes from the MIT NSE Virtual Reading Room, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA:

## Lesson 16

• Brownian motion

(Introduction from the physics department of the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia:

• Chaos and self-organization

(Introduction to chaos theory from the center of complex quantum systems, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA:

Generalities from Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self- organization)

## Lesson 17

• Fractals

(Introduction from Michael Frame, Benoit Mandelbrot, and Nial Neger, Yale University, New Haven, NE, USA:

http://classes.yale.edu/Fractals/)

• Sand Piles

(Introduction from Benoît Masson, Laboratoire Informatique Signaux et systèmes of Sofia Antipolis, France, EU:

• Spin glasses

(Short introduction&references from Daniel Stariolo, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande doSul, Porto Alegre, Brazil:

## Quantum physics made relatively simple

Hans Bethe, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

Presentation of quantum theory and mechanics through their histories.

3 courses of about 45-50 mn

Video and audio versions

Slides are presented in parallel to the video documents

## 2.3 interpretation works on the wave function, the heisenberg uncertainty principle, and the pauli exclusion principle

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
Commplementary angles
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
a perfect square v²+2v+_
kkk nice
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!