# Physics in the science of complex systems - draft 0

 Page 1 / 1
physics course for non-physicist complex systems researchers

## Physics in the science of complex systems – draft 0

The lectures are organized in lessons within thematic courses.

## Thermal and statistical physics

The main chapters are copied from the courses of Harvey Gould and Jan Tobochnik , Clark University, Worcester, MA, USA. If not, the source is precised intobrackets.

## Lesson 1

• Introduction
• Some qualitative observations
• Doing work
• Quality of energy

## Lesson 2

• Some simple simulations
• Work, heating, and the first law of thermodynamics
• The fundamental need for statistical approach
• Time and ensemble averages

## Lesson 3

• Models of matter

The ideal gas

Interparticle potentials

Lattice models

• Importance of simulations
• Summary

## Lesson 4

• Introduction
• The system
• Thermodynamic equilibrium
• Temperature
• Pressure equation of state

## Lesson 5

• Some thermodynamic processes
• Work
• The first law of thermodynamics
• Energy equation of state

## Lesson 6

• Heat capacity and enthalpy
• The second law of thermodynamics
• The thermodynamic temperature

## Lesson 7

• The second law and heat engine
• Entropy changes
• Equivalence of thermodynamic and ideal gas scale temperatures
• The thermodynamic pressure

## Lesson 8

• The fundamental thermodynamic relation
• The entropy of an ideal gas
• The third law of thermodynamics
• Free energies

## Lesson 9

• Introduction
• A simple example of a thermal interaction
• Counting microstates

Non-interacting spins

One-dimensional Ising model

A particle in a one-dimensional box

One-dimensional harmonic oscillator

A particle in a two-dimensional box

Two non-interacting identical particles and the semi-classical limit

Lesson 10

• The number of states of N non-interacting particles: semi- classical limit
• The microcanonical ensemble (fixed E, V, and N)
• Systems in contact with a heat bath: the canonical ensemble (fixed T, V, and N)
• Connection between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics

## Lesson 11

• Simple applications of the canonical ensemble
• Example of a simple thermometer
• Simulations of the microcanonical ensemble
• Simulations of the canonical ensemble

## Lesson 12

• Grand canonical ensemble (fixed T, V, and )
• Entropy and disorder
• The volume of a hypersphere
• Fluctuations in the canonical ensemble
• Molecular dynamics

(Course from North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA:

## Lesson 13

1.4.1 Introduction

1.4.2 Maxwell relations

1.4.3 Applications of the Maxwell relations

Internal energy of an ideal gas

Relation between the specific heats

## Lesson 14

1.4.4 Applications to irreversible processes

The Joule or free expansion process

Joule-Thomson process

• Equilibrium between phases

Equilibrium conditions

Clausius-Clapeyron equation

Simple phase diagrams

Pressure dependence of the melting point

Pressure dependence of the boiling point

The vapor pressure curve

Lesson 15

• Lattice gas and Ising model

(Introduction to lattice gas from Victor Batista, Chemistry department, Yale University, New Haven, NE, USA:

(Applet of ising model, from A. Peter young, Physics department, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA:

http://bartok.ucsc.edu/peter/java/ising/keep/ ising.html)

• Phase transitions

(Generalities from Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Phase_transition)

• A geometric phase transition: percolation

(Lectures notes from the MIT NSE Virtual Reading Room, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA:

## Lesson 16

• Brownian motion

(Introduction from the physics department of the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia:

• Chaos and self-organization

(Introduction to chaos theory from the center of complex quantum systems, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA:

Generalities from Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self- organization)

## Lesson 17

• Fractals

(Introduction from Michael Frame, Benoit Mandelbrot, and Nial Neger, Yale University, New Haven, NE, USA:

http://classes.yale.edu/Fractals/)

• Sand Piles

(Introduction from Benoît Masson, Laboratoire Informatique Signaux et systèmes of Sofia Antipolis, France, EU:

• Spin glasses

(Short introduction&references from Daniel Stariolo, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande doSul, Porto Alegre, Brazil:

## Quantum physics made relatively simple

Hans Bethe, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

Presentation of quantum theory and mechanics through their histories.

3 courses of about 45-50 mn

Video and audio versions

Slides are presented in parallel to the video documents

## 2.3 interpretation works on the wave function, the heisenberg uncertainty principle, and the pauli exclusion principle

what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!