# Physics in the science of complex systems - draft 0

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physics course for non-physicist complex systems researchers

## Physics in the science of complex systems – draft 0

The lectures are organized in lessons within thematic courses.

## Thermal and statistical physics

The main chapters are copied from the courses of Harvey Gould and Jan Tobochnik , Clark University, Worcester, MA, USA. If not, the source is precised intobrackets.

## Lesson 1

• Introduction
• Some qualitative observations
• Doing work
• Quality of energy

## Lesson 2

• Some simple simulations
• Work, heating, and the first law of thermodynamics
• The fundamental need for statistical approach
• Time and ensemble averages

## Lesson 3

• Models of matter

The ideal gas

Interparticle potentials

Lattice models

• Importance of simulations
• Summary

## Lesson 4

• Introduction
• The system
• Thermodynamic equilibrium
• Temperature
• Pressure equation of state

## Lesson 5

• Some thermodynamic processes
• Work
• The first law of thermodynamics
• Energy equation of state

## Lesson 6

• Heat capacity and enthalpy
• The second law of thermodynamics
• The thermodynamic temperature

## Lesson 7

• The second law and heat engine
• Entropy changes
• Equivalence of thermodynamic and ideal gas scale temperatures
• The thermodynamic pressure

## Lesson 8

• The fundamental thermodynamic relation
• The entropy of an ideal gas
• The third law of thermodynamics
• Free energies

## Lesson 9

• Introduction
• A simple example of a thermal interaction
• Counting microstates

Non-interacting spins

One-dimensional Ising model

A particle in a one-dimensional box

One-dimensional harmonic oscillator

A particle in a two-dimensional box

Two non-interacting identical particles and the semi-classical limit

Lesson 10

• The number of states of N non-interacting particles: semi- classical limit
• The microcanonical ensemble (fixed E, V, and N)
• Systems in contact with a heat bath: the canonical ensemble (fixed T, V, and N)
• Connection between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics

## Lesson 11

• Simple applications of the canonical ensemble
• Example of a simple thermometer
• Simulations of the microcanonical ensemble
• Simulations of the canonical ensemble

## Lesson 12

• Grand canonical ensemble (fixed T, V, and )
• Entropy and disorder
• The volume of a hypersphere
• Fluctuations in the canonical ensemble
• Molecular dynamics

(Course from North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA:

## Lesson 13

1.4.1 Introduction

1.4.2 Maxwell relations

1.4.3 Applications of the Maxwell relations

Internal energy of an ideal gas

Relation between the specific heats

## Lesson 14

1.4.4 Applications to irreversible processes

The Joule or free expansion process

Joule-Thomson process

• Equilibrium between phases

Equilibrium conditions

Clausius-Clapeyron equation

Simple phase diagrams

Pressure dependence of the melting point

Pressure dependence of the boiling point

The vapor pressure curve

Lesson 15

• Lattice gas and Ising model

(Introduction to lattice gas from Victor Batista, Chemistry department, Yale University, New Haven, NE, USA:

(Applet of ising model, from A. Peter young, Physics department, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA:

http://bartok.ucsc.edu/peter/java/ising/keep/ ising.html)

• Phase transitions

(Generalities from Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Phase_transition)

• A geometric phase transition: percolation

(Lectures notes from the MIT NSE Virtual Reading Room, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA:

## Lesson 16

• Brownian motion

(Introduction from the physics department of the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia:

• Chaos and self-organization

(Introduction to chaos theory from the center of complex quantum systems, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA:

Generalities from Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self- organization)

## Lesson 17

• Fractals

(Introduction from Michael Frame, Benoit Mandelbrot, and Nial Neger, Yale University, New Haven, NE, USA:

http://classes.yale.edu/Fractals/)

• Sand Piles

(Introduction from Benoît Masson, Laboratoire Informatique Signaux et systèmes of Sofia Antipolis, France, EU:

• Spin glasses

(Short introduction&references from Daniel Stariolo, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande doSul, Porto Alegre, Brazil:

## Quantum physics made relatively simple

Hans Bethe, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

Presentation of quantum theory and mechanics through their histories.

3 courses of about 45-50 mn

Video and audio versions

Slides are presented in parallel to the video documents

## 2.3 interpretation works on the wave function, the heisenberg uncertainty principle, and the pauli exclusion principle

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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