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Die aarde en daarbuite


Opvoeders afdeling


1. krake in die aardkors


2. aardkors

3. lawa koel af en stol as grys / swart basalt

4. rooi gesmelte lawa

5. krater van die vulkaan

6. magma vorm lawa

Opdrag 5:

1. Magma (lawa) sal die vinnigste afkoel sodra dit by die vulkaan uitgebars het en teen die berghelling afloop.

Rede: Min Lawa, blootgestel aan die “koeler” atmosfeer.

2. Graniet word diep onder die aardkors aangetref.

Rede: Magma moet stadig kan afkoel om graniet te vorm.

3. Diep onder die aardkors.

4. Diep onder die aardkors.

Rede: Die omringende rotse hou die magma baie lank warm. Dus kan dit nie vinnig afkoel nie.

5. Basalt word teen die berghellings van die vulkaan aangetref.

Rede: Basalt word gevorm as lawa vinnig afkoel. Dit moet dus buite die aardkors wees.

6. Die kleinste kristalle kom in basalt voor – dus teen die berghellings en valleie naby die vulkaan.

Leerder afdeling


Aangesien saad nie ewe goed in alle tipes grond groei nie, kyk ons vervolgens na die verskillende tipes gesteentes waaruit die aardkors bestaan.

  • Gesteentes verwys na die materiaal waaruit die aardkors bestaan. Gesteentes word in drie groepe verdeel, nl. stollingsgesteentes, sedimentêre gesteentes en metamorfiese gesteentes.

Aktiwiteit: om stollingsgesteentes as ‘n tipe gesteente te kan bespreek [lu 2.1]

  • Hierdie tipe gesteente is die primêre, oorspronklike gesteente waaruit die aarde se oppervlak bestaan.
  • Die eerste gesteentes van die aarde was stollingsgesteentes en hulle het gevorm toe die planeet begin afkoel het. Die gesteentes is ook baie hard en bestaan uit verskillende kristalle.

Deursnit deur ‘n vulkaan


1. ___________________________________________________________________

2. ___________________________________________________________________

3. ___________________________________________________________________

4. ___________________________________________________________________

5. ___________________________________________________________________

6. ___________________________________________________________________

  • Ons kan sien hoe stollingsgesteentes gevorm word deur op te let wat met lawa gebeur wat by ‘n vulkaan uitbars. Soos die lawa teen die berghelling afloop, koel dit af en verhard.
  • Basalt word gevorm na die uitbarsting van ‘n vulkaan. Die lawa koel vinnig af, die kristalle is klein en die kleur wissel tussen donkergrys en swart. Somtyds is die rots oortrek met klein gaatjies wat gevorm is deur klein gasborreltjies. Hierdie gesteente word dan gebruik om ‘n puimsteen van te maak. Mense gebruik dit om droë vel van hul voete af te skuur.

  • Die bekendste soort rots wat deur magma gevorm word, is egter graniet. Graniet word gevorm wanneer magma stadig onder die aarde se oppervlak afkoel. Dis baie hard en bestaan hoofsaaklik uit room, wit en swart kristalle. Pienk en geel kristalle word ook in ‘n mindere mate gevorm. Aangesien dit stadig afkoel, het die minerale in die rots tyd om groter kristalle te vorm.


Bestudeer die volgende diagram en beantwoord die vrae:

1. Waar sal die magma die vinnigste afkoel? Hoekom?





2. Waar sal jy graniet aantref? Verduidelik hoekom.





3. Waar sal die grootste kristalle aangetref word as die magma begin hard word?





4. Waar sal die magma die stadigste afkoel? Hoekom?





5. Waar sal jy basalt aantref? Verduidelik hoekom.





6. Waar sal die kleinste kristalle aangetref word?





Summatief: 10


Leeruitkomste 2: Die leerder ken, interpreteer en pas wetenskaplike, tegnologiese en omgewingskennis toe.

Assesseringstandaard 2.1: Dis duidelik wanneer die leerder inligting interpreteer.

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