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Natural sciences

Ecosystems and the environmental balance

Educator section


Assignment 7:

1. - scales

2. - tail fin

3. - lateral line

4. - gill slit

5. - dorsal fin

6. - eye


1. Make the body streamlined so that it offers as little resistance as possible while the fish swims.

2. Slime that is secreted by the glands in the epidermis makes the scales smooth and slimy. This helps the fish to move through the water more easily.

3. The water flows in at the gill slit and flows over the gills so that oxygen can be taken up by the blood vessels. The gill slit also covers the gills.

4. It has powerful muscles and is moved back and forth so that the fish can move forwards.

5. It is there to keep the fish upright and to help it maintain its balance.

The lateral line consists of a long row of openings that house nerve cells. These enable the fish to become aware of differences in pressure and thereby to determine its depth in the water.

Assignment 8:


1. To peck up food; to build its nest; to feed its chicks; to preen itself and for defence

2. The feathers, in particular the light quills, enlarge the wing surface.

3. Feathers are poor conductors of heat and therefore maintain the body heat of the pigeon. The covert feathers occur over virtually the entire body and the plumules are found underneath them.

4. The toe that points backwards helps to balance the pigeon. The feet also help the pigeon when it walks on the ground and to support its weight when it sits on a branch.

5. It makes the neck very mobile and the pigeon therefore can move its head in any direction.

6. To protect the foot and keep it dry.

7. It makes the pigeon even more streamlined and reduces the air resistance when the pigeon flies

Leaner section


Activity: to discover how animals are adapted to survive in their habitat [lo 2.3]

(i) Differences with regard to external build

Animals are adapted to be able to survive in their habitat, e.g. fish are adapted to be able to live in water.

Assignment 7

Study the sketch of the carp (freshwater fish) and identify the external body parts. Write down the name of the body part next to the correct number:

1.___________________________________________________________________2. ___________________________________________________________________

3. ___________________________________________________________________

4. ___________________________________________________________________

5. ___________________________________________________________________

6. ___________________________________________________________________

Each of these external body parts plays an important role in the survival of the fish in the water. Indicate the function of each of the following:

spindle-shaped body ___________________________________________
scales ___________________________________________
gill slit ___________________________________________
tail fin ___________________________________________
dorsal fin ___________________________________________
lateral line ___________________________________________

Assignment 8

Also study the sketch of the external build of the pigeon and answer the questions that follow:

1. The pigeon has a short, horny beak. Name five functions of the beak.






2. Its front limbs have been modified into wings so that the pigeon can fly. The strong pectoral muscles on either side of the sternum move the wings like oars that press against the air. In this manner the pigeon is propelled upwards and forwards. What helps to enlarge the surface of the wings?

3. Covert feathers and plumules are also found on the pigeon’s body. What is their function?



4. The feet of the pigeon also have been adapted to its habits. The three toes that point forwards and the one that points backwards are specially adapted. For what?



5. The neck is quite long and mobile. What is the advantage of this for the pigeon?



6. The feet are covered in scales. Why?



7. The free tips of the feathers point backwards and the body is boat shaped. Why is this so?






I easily could identify the function of the various body parts ______________
I could draw logical conclusions _____________
I could work independently _____________


Learning Outcome 2: The learner will know and be able to interpret and apply scientific, technological and environmental knowledge.

Assessment Standard 2.3: We know this when the learner interprets information.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 16, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11079/1.1
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