<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
Properties predicted for ekasilicon compared those determined for germanium.
Property Ekasilicon Germanium
Atomic mass 72 72.59
Density (g/cm 3 ) 5.5 5.35
Melting point (°C) High 947
Color Gray Gray
Oxide type Refractory dioxide Refractory dioxide
Oxide density (g/cm 3 ) 4.7 4.7
Oxide activity Feebly basic Feebly basic
Chloride boiling point (°C) Under 100 86 (GeCl 4 )
Chloride density (g/cm 3 ) 1.9 1.9


Tin is one of the earliest metals known. When the addition of about 5% tim to molten copper produced an alloy (bronze) that was easier to work and much harder than copper, it revolutionized civilization. The widespread use of bronze to make tools and weapons became part of what archaeologists call the Bronze Age. The Bronze Age arrived in Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley culture by around 3000 BC.


Lead has been commonly used for thousands of years because of its ease of extraction, and its ease of smelting. Lead beads dating back to 6400 BC have been found in Çatalhöyük in modern-day Turkey, while lead was used during the Bronze Age.


Carbon and silicon are amongst the most abundant elements ( [link] ). Silicon is the second most abundant element (after oxygen) in the Earth’s crust, making up 28% of the crust. Carbon is the fourth most abundant chemical element in the universe after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. In combination with oxygen in carbon dioxide, carbon is found in the Earth's atmosphere (in quantities of approximately 810 gigatonnes) and dissolved in all water bodies (approximately 36,000 gigatons). Around 1,900 gigatons are present in the biosphere. Hydrocarbons (such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas) contain carbon amounts to around 900 gigatons. Natural diamonds occur in the rock kimberlite, found in ancient volcanic "necks," or "pipes". Most diamond deposits are in Africa but there are also deposits in Canada, the Russian Arctic, Brazil, and Australia.

Abundance of Group 14 elements.
Element Terrestrial abundance (ppm)
C 480 (Earth’s crust), 28 (sea water), 350 (atmosphere CO 2 ), 1.6 (atmosphere, CH 4 ), 0.25 (atmosphere, CO)
Si 28,000 (Earth’s crust), 2 (sea water)
Ge 2 (Earth’s crust), 1 (soil), 5 x 10 -7 (sea water)
Sn 2 (Earth’s crust), 1 (soil), 4 x 10 -6 (sea water)
Pb 14 (Earth’s crust), 23 (soil), 2 x 10 -6 (sea water)


[link] summarizes the naturally occurring isotopes of the Group 14 elements.

Abundance of the major isotopes of the Group 14 elements.
Isotope Natural abundance (%)
Carbon-12 98.9
Carbon-13 1.1
Carbon-14 trace
Silicon-28 92.23
Silicon-29 4.67
Silicon -30 3.1
Germanium-70 21.23
Germanium-72 27.66
Germanium-73 7.73
Germanium-74 35.94
Germanium-76 7.44
Tin-112 0.97
Tin-114 0.66
Tin-115 0.34
Tin-116 14.54
Tin-117 7.68
Tin-118 24.22
Tin-119 8.59
Tin-120 32.58
Tin-122 4.63
Tin-124 5.79
Lead-204 1.4
Lead-24.1 24.1
Lead-207 22.1
Lead-208 52.4

Although radioactive, carbon-14 is formed in upper layers of the troposphere and the stratosphere, at altitudes of 9–15 km. Thermal neutrons produced by cosmic rays collide with the nuclei of nitrogen-14, forming carbon-14 and a proton. Because of its relatively short half-life of 5730 years, carbon-14 is absent in ancient rocks, but is incorporated in living organisms.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of the main group elements. OpenStax CNX. Aug 20, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11124/1.25
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Chemistry of the main group elements' conversation and receive update notifications?