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Properties predicted for ekasilicon compared those determined for germanium.
Property Ekasilicon Germanium
Atomic mass 72 72.59
Density (g/cm 3 ) 5.5 5.35
Melting point (°C) High 947
Color Gray Gray
Oxide type Refractory dioxide Refractory dioxide
Oxide density (g/cm 3 ) 4.7 4.7
Oxide activity Feebly basic Feebly basic
Chloride boiling point (°C) Under 100 86 (GeCl 4 )
Chloride density (g/cm 3 ) 1.9 1.9


Tin is one of the earliest metals known. When the addition of about 5% tim to molten copper produced an alloy (bronze) that was easier to work and much harder than copper, it revolutionized civilization. The widespread use of bronze to make tools and weapons became part of what archaeologists call the Bronze Age. The Bronze Age arrived in Egypt, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley culture by around 3000 BC.


Lead has been commonly used for thousands of years because of its ease of extraction, and its ease of smelting. Lead beads dating back to 6400 BC have been found in Çatalhöyük in modern-day Turkey, while lead was used during the Bronze Age.


Carbon and silicon are amongst the most abundant elements ( [link] ). Silicon is the second most abundant element (after oxygen) in the Earth’s crust, making up 28% of the crust. Carbon is the fourth most abundant chemical element in the universe after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. In combination with oxygen in carbon dioxide, carbon is found in the Earth's atmosphere (in quantities of approximately 810 gigatonnes) and dissolved in all water bodies (approximately 36,000 gigatons). Around 1,900 gigatons are present in the biosphere. Hydrocarbons (such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas) contain carbon amounts to around 900 gigatons. Natural diamonds occur in the rock kimberlite, found in ancient volcanic "necks," or "pipes". Most diamond deposits are in Africa but there are also deposits in Canada, the Russian Arctic, Brazil, and Australia.

Abundance of Group 14 elements.
Element Terrestrial abundance (ppm)
C 480 (Earth’s crust), 28 (sea water), 350 (atmosphere CO 2 ), 1.6 (atmosphere, CH 4 ), 0.25 (atmosphere, CO)
Si 28,000 (Earth’s crust), 2 (sea water)
Ge 2 (Earth’s crust), 1 (soil), 5 x 10 -7 (sea water)
Sn 2 (Earth’s crust), 1 (soil), 4 x 10 -6 (sea water)
Pb 14 (Earth’s crust), 23 (soil), 2 x 10 -6 (sea water)


[link] summarizes the naturally occurring isotopes of the Group 14 elements.

Abundance of the major isotopes of the Group 14 elements.
Isotope Natural abundance (%)
Carbon-12 98.9
Carbon-13 1.1
Carbon-14 trace
Silicon-28 92.23
Silicon-29 4.67
Silicon -30 3.1
Germanium-70 21.23
Germanium-72 27.66
Germanium-73 7.73
Germanium-74 35.94
Germanium-76 7.44
Tin-112 0.97
Tin-114 0.66
Tin-115 0.34
Tin-116 14.54
Tin-117 7.68
Tin-118 24.22
Tin-119 8.59
Tin-120 32.58
Tin-122 4.63
Tin-124 5.79
Lead-204 1.4
Lead-24.1 24.1
Lead-207 22.1
Lead-208 52.4

Although radioactive, carbon-14 is formed in upper layers of the troposphere and the stratosphere, at altitudes of 9–15 km. Thermal neutrons produced by cosmic rays collide with the nuclei of nitrogen-14, forming carbon-14 and a proton. Because of its relatively short half-life of 5730 years, carbon-14 is absent in ancient rocks, but is incorporated in living organisms.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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waht is hydrating power of lithium carbonates
Mahar Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of the main group elements. OpenStax CNX. Aug 20, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11124/1.25
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