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More generally, the practical utility of the culture of poverty approach is limited because it essentializes the communities and the constituents with whom educational leaders work (i.e., the approach purports to comprehend the essence of an individual or community on the basis of a single identifying characteristic, poverty). In such a model, to know that an individual or a community is economically disadvantaged is enough to claim an understanding of the knowledge bases, resident capacities, and core beliefs of that individual or community. Of note with regard to the project, this kind of essentializing gains particularly strong grounding when applied to rural contexts, as the notion that all rural areas are the same is an idea that persists in America today (Brown&Swanson, 2003; Johnson&Strange, 2007).

In contrast to existing approaches, the model we suggest seeks to be socially and culturally responsive while acknowledging key structural influences that impact rural schools and communities in Central Appalachia. The model is organized around three key areas of understanding for educational leaders: knowledge, place, and people (see Figure 1).

Conceptual Model

We argue that the development of leaders who can move forward educational goals while contributing to sustaining and revitalizing rural communities requires both intellectual and emotional engagement. Central to engagement is the consideration of power, and we ground our approach in critical understandings of the power dynamics that have shaped contemporary Appalachia. Power has been deployed throughout the region to neglect and exploit human and natural resources of the region, creating and maintaining poverty that is both intense and enduring. Understanding such dynamics, we contend, is a necessary precursor to effective leadership in this context—educational or otherwise.


Critical theorists assert that Knowledge (i.e., knowledge with a capital “K”—the information and skills deemed important and appropriate by recognized experts and authorities) represents a source of power and has historically been deployed as a means of marginalizing certain groups (see e.g., Apple, 1999, 2002; Fraser, 1997; Giroux, 1997, 2001). Attentive to this critical reading of knowledge and power, the model we propose consciously and deliberately acknowledges the worth of information and skills not typically associated with schooling. Specifically, the model construes Knowledge as comprising both (1) an academic component (i.e., traditional knowledge such as that defined by official curricula and assessed as part of educational accountability systems) and (2) a contextual component (i.e., knowledge that is closely connected to place and culture and is learned informally through interactions with others, particularly interactions that occur outside of the formal schooling process). Combining these two components, we propose here a third construct termed systemic knowledge to describe an integrative knowledge that honors both academic and contextual forms of knowledge, thereby catalyzing the individual strengths of each (cf. Geertz, 1973; Jackson, 1996; Williams, 1958/2001). The result is a kind of Deweyian knowledge that reflects common experiences and shared commitments, thereby resonating with learners.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea education leadership review, volume 10, number 2; august 2009. OpenStax CNX. Feb 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10710/1.2
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