# 1.12 Sampling and data: practice 1

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This module provides an opportunity for students to practice concepts related to statistical sampling and data. Given a sample data set, the student will practice constructing frequency tables, differentiating between key terms, and comparing sampling techniques.

## Student learning outcomes

• The student will construct frequency tables.
• The student will differentiate between key terms.
• The student will compare sampling techniques.

## Given

Studies are often done by pharmaceutical companies to determine the effectiveness of a treatment program. Suppose that a new AIDS antibody drug is currently under study. It is given to patients once the AIDS symptoms have revealed themselves. Of interest is the average(mean) length of time in months patients live once starting the treatment. Two researchers each follow a different set of 40 AIDS patients from the start of treatment until their deaths. The following data (in months) are collected.

• 3
• 4
• 11
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• 22
• 44
• 37
• 16
• 14
• 24
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• 15
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• 29
• 35
• 44
• 13
• 21
• 22
• 10
• 12
• 8
• 40
• 32
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• 31
• 34
• 29
• 17
• 8
• 24
• 18
• 47
• 33
• 34

• 3
• 14
• 11
• 5
• 16
• 17
• 28
• 41
• 31
• 18
• 14
• 14
• 26
• 25
• 21
• 22
• 31
• 2
• 35
• 44
• 23
• 21
• 21
• 16
• 12
• 18
• 41
• 22
• 16
• 25
• 33
• 34
• 29
• 13
• 18
• 24
• 23
• 42
• 33
• 29

## Organize the data

Complete the tables below using the data provided.

Researcher a
Survival Length (in months) Frequency Relative Frequency Cumulative Relative Frequency
0.5 - 6.5
6.5 - 12.5
12.5 - 18.5
18.5 - 24.5
24.5 - 30.5
30.5 - 36.5
36.5 - 42.5
42.5 - 48.5
Researcher b
Survival Length (in months) Frequency Relative Frequency Cumulative Relative Frequency
0.5 - 6.5
6.5 - 12.5
12.5 - 18.5
18.5 - 24.5
24.5 - 30.5
30.5 - 36.5
36.5 - 42.5
42.5 - 48.5

## Key terms

Define the key terms based upon the above example for Researcher A.

Population

Sample

Parameter

Statistic

Variable

Data

## Discussion questions

Discuss the following questions and then answer in complete sentences.

List two reasons why the data may differ.

Can you tell if one researcher is correct and the other one is incorrect? Why?

Would you expect the data to be identical? Why or why not?

How could the researchers gather random data?

Suppose that the first researcher conducted his survey by randomly choosing one state in the nation and then randomly picking 40 patients from that state. What sampling method would that researcher have used?

Suppose that the second researcher conducted his survey by choosing 40 patients he knew. What sampling method would that researcher have used? What concerns would you have about this data set, based upon the data collection method?

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
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fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
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is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
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Do you know which machine is used to that process?
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how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
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What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
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Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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many many of nanotubes
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what is the k.e before it land
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
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preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
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anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
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after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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