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Results of the implementation of our project.

Full digital signal output

The Digital Output

The full digital signal output exists in the digital realm, but it is a bit stream that gets 8 new bits 44,100 times each second. As discussed earlier, the exact nature of this bit stream is based on the original audio file, but there are a total of 256 different output voltage levels.

R/2r ladder output

The Digital Sine Wave
The full digital signal enters the R/2R Ladder and the voltage at output becomes the weighted sum of each bit. The 256 quantization levels make the signal appear blocky and really shows that higher frequencies have been introduced into the signal.

The full digital signal enters the R/2R Ladder and the voltage at output becomes the weighted sum of each bit. The 256 quantization levels make the signal appear blocky and really shows that higher frequencies have been introduced into the signal.

Audio output

The Sine Wave

Kernel multitasker

In our final results, we noticed that the final audio output had significant random delays. This is due to the kernel multitasker on the BeagleBone Black. Since it runs Linux, and Linux is not a realtime system, the processor will choose to run a background process that is not our code from time to time. We used the BBIOlib which directly addresses the general purpose I/Os which avoid many of the Linux performance issues, but not this one. We wanted to collect data on our systems signal to noise ratio, but because of this significant and random delay, it would make our data significantly off. The final sound is pretty clear when coming through the speakers, other than the intermittent delay. However, we could calculate the signal to quantization noise ratio (SQNR) which was around 48 dB.

Questions & Answers

Complementary angles
Idrissa Reply
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
Complementary angles
Idrissa
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Sherica
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Sherica
Complementary angles
Idrissa
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Sherica
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
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or infinite solutions?
Kim
y=10×
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Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
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is it 3×y ?
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J, combine like terms 7x-4y
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
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AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
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Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
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Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, R/2r implementation of a d/a converter. OpenStax CNX. Dec 17, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11732/1.1
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