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Sosiale wetenskappe: aardrykskunde

Graad 6

Kaartwerk

Module 1

Bepaling van rigting

Bepaling van rigting

1. Die gebruik van lengte- en breedtelyne om ligging aan te dui.

Net soos ons lyne op 'n kaart of plan intrek, word daar ook sekere denkbeeldige lyne op die aarde geteken. Presies halfpad tussen die Noord- en Suidpool lê die EWENAAR. Die ewenaar word die 0° breedtelyn genoem en loop van oos na wes. Parallel met die 0° breedtelyn loop daar nog ‘n 90°N en 90°S breedtelyn by die twee Pole.

Die ewenaar verdeel die aardbol in twee helftes. Die “boonste” helfte word die NOORDELIKE HALFROND genoem en die “onderste” helfte word die SUIDELIKE HALFROND genoem.

Daar is ook denkbeeldige lyne wat van noord na suid loop. Hulle word die lengtelyne genoem. Die lengtelyn wat op 0° lê, word die GREENWICH-lengtelyn genoem. Dit verdeel die aarde weer in 'n WESTELIKE HALFROND en OOSTELIKE HALFROND. Oos van die Greenwich lengtelyn is daar 180 lengtelyne en wes van die Greenwich lengtelyn is daar ook 180 lengtelyne.

Al hierdie lengte- en breedtelyne vorm kruispunte op die aarde waarmee 'n plek se presiese ligging aangedui kan word. Meer hieroor later. Vir nou is dit genoeg dat jy kan aandui in watter halfrond / halfrondes 'n plek, land of kontinent geleë is.

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om vrae te beantwoord

[lu 1.3, 1.5]

Bestudeer die wêreldkaart in jou atlas en beantwoord die volgende vrae.

  • Noem die vastelande waardeur die ewenaar gaan.
  • Die ewenaar loop deur drie oseane. Noem hulle.
  • Is Kaapstad in die Oostelike of Westelike Halfrond geleë?
  • Watter vasteland lê heeltemal noord van die ewenaar?
  • Watter vasteland lê heeltemal in die Westelike Halfrond?

In watter twee halfrondes is Suid-Afrika geleë?

2. Die kenmerke van Lengte- en Breedtelyne.

Lengte- en breedtelyne

3. Breedtelyne

‘n Paar belangrike feite:

Die bekendste is die ewenaar (0°-breedtelyn)

  • Die keerkringe is by 23½° geleë.
  • Die poolsirkels is by 66½° geleë.
  • Die pole is by 90° geleë (eintlik ‘n punt en nie ‘n lyn nie).
  • Alle breedtelyne is parallel (eweredig) aan mekaar.
  • Breedtelyne dui die noordelike en suidelike halfrondes aan.
  • Wanneer ligging aangedui word, word ‘n plek se breedteligging eerste genoem.
  • ‘n Plek se breedteligging is ‘n goeie aanduiding van die klimaat daarvan. Julle weet reeds dat ‘n plek naby die ewenaar (0°) normaalweg baie warm is. Ook weet julle dat ‘n plek naby die pole (90°) baie koud is. Onthou net dat daar meer faktore is wat ‘n plek se klimaat bepaal as net die breedteligging.

Die belangrikste breedtelyne

4. Lengtelyne

‘n Paar belangrike feite:

  • Die bekendste is die Greenwich-meridiaan (0° lengtelyn).
  • Vanaf Greenwich (0°) word die lengtelyne na oos tot by 180° genommer.
  • Dit vorm die Oostelike Halfrond.
  • Vanaf Greenwich (0°) word die lengtelyne na wes ook tot by 180° genommer.
  • Dit vorm die Westelike Halfrond.
  • Lengtelyne kom by die pole bymekaar en is almal ewe lank.
  • By die ewenaar is die lengtelyne die verste van mekaar geleë.
  • Wanneer ‘n plek se ligging aangedui word, word lengteligging altyd tweede genoem.

Oostelike Halfrond

Westelike halfrond

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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 07, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10999/1.1
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