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A.d. 1701 to 1800

Backward to A.D. 1601 to 1700

This century saw the gradual development of the idea of "Powers" rather then kings, as the dominant factors in international affairs, although prior to 1750 almost all people of the globe were ruled by hereditary rulers

Exceptions were Switzerland and a few German and Italian cities. (Ref. 213 )
. It was a century of constant warfare with revolutions appearing at the end of the period, in multiple quarters. Great fortunes were made by men who equipped armies, but sugar and slave merchants of many countries were not far behind. (Ref. 213 ) The world production of gold more than doubled between 1720 and 1760 and some other metals increased still more. Braudel (Ref. 260 ) emphasizes still another aspect of the 18th century in that in both China and Europe the ancient biological balance of births to deaths at 40 per 1,000 each, was shattered - probably because of better crops and some control over disease. A demographic explosion resulted as births gained over deaths, but the basic civilizations changed little. For example, non-European societies, with the exception of China, had little furniture - there were essentially no chairs or tables in India or black Africa. Even the Russians had few tables and the Muslims all sat on cushions. There was not a fireplace in the whole of Turkish Islam, India or Japan. The Japanese used hot baths heated by wood fires as a means of keeping warm as much as keeping clean. Some northern Chinese homes, however, were heated by pipes under the floors, stoked from outside. Most of China did have elaborate furniture. (Ref. 260 )

Almost every country had its peddlers, who although usually poor, were merchants carrying their meager stock on their backs and filling in the gaps in the regular channels of distribution. In backward regions economically, such as Poland, the peddlers actually dominated trade. All the glassware of Europe was distributed by peddlers, even to Scandinavia, England, Russia and the Ottoman Empire. (Ref. 292 )

The christian church and the papacy

The "Age of Enlightenment"

This is Durant's terminology. (Ref. 52 )
of this century continued the process of diminishing power and importance of the papacy. The Spanish Church became practically independent of Rome and under government control. (Ref. 222 ) The Church's objection to usury continued to be a problem in the Christian world. Pope Benedict IV led a vigorous re-affirmation of the ancient restrictions on lending at interest in 1745. In 1777 a judgment of the Paris Parliament forbade any usury prohibited by the canons of the Church and it continued to be an offense in France until 1789. However, in general, the quarrel really terminated in the latter half of the century when a distinction was made between "usury", meaning excessive rates of interest and the regular price of borrowing money. (Ref. 292 )

The Society of Jesus was abolished by the pope in 1773. At the end of the century, incident to the anti-clericalism of the French Revolution, a French army invaded the papal territory, set up a revolutionary Roman Republic (1798) and took Pope Pius VI off to France where he died with a year. (Ref. 52 , 119 ) Methodism, one of the new branches of Protestantism, was developed in England. This will be further discussed in this chapter under the section on ENGLAND.

Islam

Through this century the entire Moslem world continued to be dedicated to its original concepts. Islam was not based on the world of Greece and Rome, but had been grafted on to the old Middle East, which was basically a trading civilization. The Muslim economy was an inherited set of trade links running between the merchants of Spain, North Af rica, Syria, Mesopotamia, Abyssinia, the Malabar coast, China and the East Indies. They inherited their gold dinar from Byzantium and their silver dirhem from Sassanid Persia. Mohammed himself had said: "He who makes money pleases God". (Ref. 292 ) Thus, Muslim merchants always enjoyed the best of considerations from their political rulers.

International jewry

In the Middle East, as well as central and western Europe, Jews were tolerated and generally well treated in this century, except that Empress Maria Therea launched a program to drive them from Bohemia and Moravia in 1743. (Ref. 222 ) In Russia the merchants of Moscow complained in 1790 that they were being undercut in pricing by Jews and rural tavern owners resented their competition in that field. To solve the latter problem, in 1795 Catherine ordered that Jews be allowed to register and obtain civil rights only in towns, thus effectively eliminating them from rural tavern operations. Finally, Jews were allowed to settle only within certain regions of Russia, which by 1800 included all Polish territory claimed by Russia and most of southern Russia, including Kiev and the Crimea.

Forward to A.D. 1801 to 1900

Questions & Answers

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Damian Reply
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Daniel
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Maciej
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Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
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Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
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Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
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Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
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Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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