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This is just a simple rule of probability. The likelihood that an event, composed of two or more independent events, will occur is equal to the mathematical product of the likelihood that each event will occur independently.

Review the bulleted definition above to see that it also makes biological sense. The likelihood that a given genotype will form is equal to the probability of picking first one then the second of the two alleles necessary to form it. And, the probability of picking an allele directly reflects its relative commonness (frequency) in the parental population .

Finally, note that this likelihood also represents the frequency with which we expect to observe the genotype in the offspring generation. This makes sense because how frequently we expect to see the genotype in the offspring generation is the direct result of how likely it is to form. Genotypes that have a low probability of forming, because the alleles that comprise them are relatively rare in the parental generation, will appear infrequently in the offspring generation.

Is it exactly that simple?

There is one more thing to consider when determining the probability that given genotype will appear in the next generation; that is the number of ways a particular genotype can form.

Remember that the likelihood a particular genotype will form is equal to the probability of picking first one then the second of the two alleles necessary to form it. There is only one way to form a homozygote; both parents must donate the same allele. For example, the AA genotype can only form if, when one parent donates an A , the other does as well. Heterozygotes, in contrast, can form in two ways; 'parent one' can donate an A and 'parent two' an a or 'parent one' can donate an a and 'parent two' an A .

The fact that there are two routes to heterozygote formation must be taken into consideration when calculating the likelihood that the heterozygous genotype will occur in the offspring generation. To account for this, you must multiply the probability that a heterozygote will form by two, i.e. multiply the value described in the bulleted point above by two.

You should now have the tools to answer the question posed at the start of this module:

Are parental genotype frequencies necessarily reproduced in the offspring generation when all individuals are equally likely to survive and reproduce?

To answer the question titling this section and the module, let’s start by asking what you need to know. Then let’s figure out how you can get that information. To do this, review the question, the information provided in previous sections and develop a table similar to that below.

What do I need to know to answer this question? How do I get this information?

Check your outline above by working through the example below.

Review Figure 1. Imagine that these parents mate randomly. What genotypes could their offspring exhibit? Put another way, what allele combinations could we see in the offspring generation if every parent has an equal chance of reproducing and thus contributing an allele to the next generation?

Since two alleles exist for this locus in this population, A and a , three possible genotypes can occur in the offspring of these parents. These three genotypes are:

  • AA
  • aa
  • Aa

Recall that the last can form in two ways: Aa or aA .

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
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what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Understanding the hardy-weinberg equation. OpenStax CNX. Oct 22, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10472/1.1
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