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(Continue on pages 490 and 492) Additional Notes


Throughout the last century the Picts had fought against each other, but after a last intramural battle in 729, Oengus became king of all Picts. He promptly made peace with the Angles and then turned to battle the Scots, capturing Dunadd and Dunolly, drowning one Dalriadic king and forcing others to take to the sea. But when he wheeled south again against Strathclyde, his army was annihilated, perhaps through some treachery. (Ref. 170 ) Iona, the Scottish religious shrine island, was invaded by the Norse in 794 and was burned just after the turn of the next century. (Ref. 119 )


The Christian world of Patrick's Ireland was shattered by Vikings in 795 and raided by them for the next 200 years. As a result of this, there are currently genetic similarities of populations of Scandinavia, Scotland and Northern Ireland, even though geographically separated. Irish monks landed in Iceland about 759, in hide-covered curraghs. (Ref. 143 , 260 )


Norway | sweden | denmark

Of the territory of the Germanic peoples, only Scandinavia kept out of Charlemagne's Empire. In Sweden, the town of Birka began to dominate the area of Lake Malar. It was an economic unit of considerable importance. Even a bronze Buddha has been found there. Just west of present day Stockholm, the island of Helgo was the center of industry, including the production of cheap jewelry, iron-working, etc.

The first Dano-Norwegian raid to strike real terror in Europe was the attack on Lindisfarne, England in 789, where a famous convent and seat of learning was attacked and the inmates killed or taken off as slaves. Many of the raids of the Frisian and English coasts originated in the vigorous kingdom of Juteland in Denmark. "Viking" probably means "men from the fiords", because "vik" means "a little fiord" in both Danish and Norwegian. In addition to sea travel, the Scandinavians travelled great distances by land, as from Uppland, Sweden to Trondelag, Norway, by horses, sledges and carts. There was an ox-road from north Juteland into Germany. In winter men used skates and skies and put spikes on horses’ hooves. (Ref. 117 ) Additional Notes


In this century the Finns, coming from the south and southwest, took present day Finland (at least Karelia) from the Lapps, who receded northward. As noted previously the Finns spoke a Finno-Ugric language, related to Lapp and Livonian. Their language, although not their blood types, suggest distant relation to the Huns and the Magyars who came from the upper Volga and Oka rivers. There were three basic tribes: the Tavastians, who settled in western Finland; the Karelians; and the true Finns who had originally settled on the south shore of the Gulf of Finland. They cleared the forest and drained the marshes, but the three tribes waged war on each other. (Ref. 61 )

Eastern europe

Southern baltic area

Related to the Finns were the Borussians (Old Prussians), Esths (Estonians), Livs (Livonians), Litva (Lithuanians) and Latvians who settled the Baltic areas south of the Gulf of Finland. All of these people remained pagan for several centuries.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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