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Interesting fact

Normally, healthy kidneys remove waste products from the blood. When a person has renal failure, their kidneys cannot do this any more, and this can be life-threatening. Using dialysis, the blood of the patient flows on one side of a semi-permeable membrane. On the other side there will be a fluid that has no waste products but lots of other important substances such as potassium ions ( K + ) that the person will need. Waste products from the blood diffuse from where their concentration is high (i.e. in the person's blood) into the 'clean' fluid on the other side of the membrane. The potassium ions will move in the opposite direction from the fluid into the blood. Through this process, waste products are taken out of the blood so that the person stays healthy.

Investigation : the separation of a salt solution


To demonstrate that a homogeneous salt solution can be separated using physical methods.


glass beaker, salt, water, retort stand, bunsen burner.


  1. Pour a small amount of water (about 20 ml) into a beaker.
  2. Measure a teaspoon of salt and pour this into the water.
  3. Stir until the salt dissolves completely. This is now called a salt solution . This salt solution is a homogeneous mixture.
  4. Place the beaker on a retort stand over a bunsen burner and heat gently. You should increase the heat until the water almost boils.
  5. Watch the beaker until all the water has evaporated. What do you see in the beaker?


The water evaporates from the beaker and tiny grains of salt remain at the bottom. (You may also observe grains of salt on the walls of the beaker.)


The salt solution, which is a homogeneous mixture of salt and water, has been separated using heating and evaporation.

Discussion : separating mixtures

Work in groups of 3-4

Imagine that you have been given a container which holds a mixture of sand, iron filings (small pieces of iron metal), salt and small stones of different sizes. Is this a homogeneous or a heterogeneous mixture? In your group, discuss how you would go about separating this mixture into the four materials that it contains.

The following presentation provides a summary of the classification of matter.


  • All the objects and substances that we see in the world are made of matter .
  • This matter can be classified according to whether it is a mixture or a pure substance .
  • A mixture is a combination of one or more substances that are not chemically bonded to each other. Examples of mixtures are air (a mixture of different gases) and blood (a mixture of cells, platelets and plasma).
  • The main characteristics of mixtures are that the substances that make them up are not in a fixed ratio, they keep their individual properties and they can be separated from each other using mechanical means.
  • A heterogeneous mixture is non-uniform and the different parts of the mixture can be seen. An example would be a mixture of sand and water.
  • A homogeneous mixture is uniform, and the different components of the mixture can't be seen. An example would be a salt solution. A salt solution is a mixture of salt and water. The salt dissolves in the water, meaning that you can't see the individual salt particles. They are interspersed between the water molecules. Another example is a metal alloy such as steel.
  • Mixtures can be separated using a number of methods such as filtration, heating, evaporation, centrifugation and dialysis.
  • Pure substances can be further divided into elements and compounds .
  • An element is a substance that can't be broken down into simpler substances through chemical means.
  • All the elements are recorded in the Periodic Table of the Elements . Each element has its own chemical symbol. Examples are iron ( Fe ), sulphur ( S ), calcium ( Ca ), magnesium ( Mg ) and fluorine ( F ).
  • A compound is a substance that is made up of two or more elements that are chemically bonded to each other in a fixed ratio. Examples of compounds are sodium chloride ( NaCl ), iron sulphide ( FeS ), calcium carbonate ( CaCO 3 ) and water ( H 2 O ).
  • When naming compounds and writing their chemical formula , it is important to know the elements that are in the compound, how many atoms of each of these elements will combine in the compound and where the elements are in the Periodic Table. A number of rules can then be followed to name the compound.
  • Another way of classifying matter is into metals (e.g. iron, gold, copper), semi-metals (e.g. silicon and germanium) and non-metals (e.g. sulphur, phosphorus and nitrogen).
  • Metals are good electrical and thermal conductors, they have a shiny lustre, they are malleable and ductile, and they have a high melting point. These properties make metals very useful in electrical wires, cooking utensils, jewellery and many other applications.
  • A further way of classifying matter is into electrical conductors , semi-conductors and insulators .
  • An electrical conductor allows an electrical current to pass through it. Most metals are good electrical conductors.
  • An electrical insulator is not able to carry an electrical current. Examples are plastic, wood, cotton material and ceramic.
  • Materials may also be classified as thermal conductors or thermal insulators depending on whether or not they are able to conduct heat.
  • Materials may also be either magnetic or non-magnetic .


  1. For each of the following multiple choice questions, choose one correct answer from the list provided.
    1. Which of the following can be classified as a mixture:
      1. sugar
      2. table salt
      3. air
      4. iron
    2. An element can be defined as:
      1. A substance that cannot be separated into two or more substances by ordinary chemical (or physical) means
      2. A substance with constant composition
      3. A substance that contains two or more substances, in definite proportion by weight
      4. A uniform substance
  2. Classify each of the following substances as an element , a compound , a solution (homogeneous mixture), or a heterogeneous mixture : salt, pure water, soil, salt water, pure air, carbon dioxide, gold and bronze.
  3. Look at the table below. In the first column (A) is a list of substances. In the second column (B) is a description of the group that each of these substances belongs in. Match up the substance in Column A with the description in Column B.
    Column A Column B
    iron a compound containing 2 elements
    H 2 S a heterogeneous mixture
    sugar solution a metal alloy
    sand and stones an element
    steel a homogeneous mixture
  4. You are given a test tube that contains a mixture of iron filings and sulphur. You are asked to weigh the amount of iron in the sample.
    1. Suggest one method that you could use to separate the iron filings from the sulphur.
    2. What property of metals allows you to do this?
  5. Given the following descriptions, write the chemical formula for each of the following substances:
    1. silver metal
    2. a compound that contains only potassium and bromine
    3. a gas that contains the elements carbon and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2
  6. Give the names of each of the following compounds:
    1. NaBr
    2. BaSO 4
    3. SO 2
  7. For each of the following materials, say what properties of the material make it important in carrying out its particular function.
    1. tar on roads
    2. iron burglar bars
    3. plastic furniture
    4. metal jewellery
    5. clay for building
    6. cotton clothing

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP
Yash Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry grade 10 [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Jun 13, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11303/1.4
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