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This chapter discusses the role that virtual research environments play in bringing together researchers and resources needed in virtual environments underpinned by e-Infrastructures.


e-Research is, by definition, a collaborative activity that combines the abilities of distributed groups of researchers in order to achieve research goals that individual researchers or local groups could not hope to accomplish. Very often, e-Research is also multidisciplinary, spanning not only geographical and organisational boundaries but also disciplinary ones. There is hardly any kind of research that does not make use of electronic resources of one kind or other and in some disciplines ICTs play such a central role that without them, the advancement of research would not be possible.

The notion of a virtual research environment has gained prominence in the e‑Research community (Fraser 2005, Borda et al . 2006). For all practical puposes, the term is synonymous with other concepts such as collaboratories, cyberenvironments or science gateways that are used in the US and elsewhere ( cf. Olson, Zimmerman and Bos 2008, Wilkins-Diehr 2007). The aim of a VRE is to provide an integrated environment that supports the work of a community of collaborating researchers. That is, a VRE brings together previously separate tools needed for conducting the research and for collaboration , support for which is increasingly recognised as an integral aspect of researchers’ work rather than something that can be added on as an afterthought.

Providing rich functionality

Behind the scenes, a VRE makes use of a set of services proving secure access to various kinds of resources such as datasets, large-scale storage facilities and computational facilities for execution of scientific codes. The resources used are distributed, they are provided by different organisations and under different policies governing their usage. Therefore, the infrastructure needs to support their management by providing, for example, appropriate authentication and authorisation mechanisms to ensure that only authorised individuals access files and that computational resources are accessed with the correct credentials. During the execution of a scientific application, intermediate data and runtime information is created that may be retained to provide a provenance record and simulation outputs are stored in a storage system. For example, researchers might want to:

  • authenticate using an authentication service,
  • communicate and collaborate with colleagues,
  • transfer data,
  • configure a resource,
  • invoke a computation,
  • re-use data and give credit to the original producer,
  • archive output data and runtime data,
  • publish outputs, both informally through blogs or wikis and formally through conference or journal papers,
  • discover what resources are available,
  • monitor the state of a resource or process,
  • maintain awareness of who is currently doing what,
  • find out where particular data has come from and how it was processed ( provenance ),
  • find out who has access to a resource and what they can do with it ( authentication and authorisation ).

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Research in a connected world. OpenStax CNX. Nov 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10677/1.12
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