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Cimicids belong to a hematophagous taxon that feeds primarily on the blood of humans, birds and bats. Their best known member is the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, which parasitizes humans. In bed bugs and other cimicids, a bizarre form of mating behavior called traumatic insemination takes place in which males pierce females through the abdominal region and inseminate directly into the body cavity. This mating practice is thought to have evolved due to differences in the evolutionary interests of the two sexes, in which fitness does not increase with the number of matings in females, but does increase in males. A variety of hypotheses have arisen to explain the evolution of traumatic insemination, including bypassing the mating plug and overcoming female resistance during mating, which would be reproductively advantageous to males. Regardless of its evolutionary origin, traumatic insemination has been shown to propel male and female coevolution. In the case of the bed bug, females have evolved a spermalege, an organ that serves as a counter-adaptation to the damage caused by the males’ intromittent organs that deliver sperm during copulation. These observations have led scientists to regard cimicids, C. lectularius in particular, as ideal model systems for examining the causes and consequences of sexual selection.

Author: Christine Sun


In the animal kingdom, mating interactions are frequently marked by conflict (Johnston&Keller 2000). In sexually reproducing organisms, both the male and the female have conflicting strategies in optimizing reproductive fitness (Morrow et al. 2003). Although male fitness increases with the number of matings, female fitness is not increased and is often lowered. At the same time, however, the two sexes must meet somewhere in the middle to be able to successfully produce offspring. As a result, sexual conflict often leads to an evolutionary arms race between males and females (Rice&Holland 1997; Morrow et al. 2003; Lessells 2006). As Dawkins and Krebs phrased it, “as swords get sharper, so shields get thicker, so swords get sharper still”(Dawkins&Krebs 1979). One organism that displays sexual conflict is the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius .

The bed bug, which belongs to the Cimicidae family, has been known to parasitize humans for more than four million years (Reinhardt&Siva-Jothy 2007). While the organism itself is relatively common, the bed bug’s particular mating behavior is rarely found in other species. Although bed bugs have fully functional reproductive tracts, they reproduce solely by traumatic insemination (Usinger 1966 as cited by Reinhardt&Siva-Jothy 2007).

During traumatic insemination, the male pierces the female’s abdomen with his knifelike intromittent organ and injects his sperm through the wound into her hemocoel , the cavity that contains the hemolymph . The sperm travels throughout the female’s hemolymph and eventually reaches the ovaries, resulting in fertilization (Carayon 1966 as cited by Reinhardt&Siva-Jothy 2007).

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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