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Questions or comments concerning this laboratory should be directedto Prof. Charles A. Bouman, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN 47907;(765) 494-0340; bouman@ecn.purdue.edu

Introduction

This is the first part of a two week experiment in image processing. During this week, we will cover the fundamentalsof digital monochrome images, intensity histograms, pointwise transformations, gamma correction, and image enhancement based on filtering.

In the second week, we will cover some fundamental concepts of colorimages. This will include a brief description on how humans perceive color, followed by descriptions of two standard color spaces.The second week will also discuss an application known as image halftoning .

Introduction to monochrome images

An image is the optical representation of objects illuminated by a light source. Since we want to process images using acomputer, we represent them as functions of discrete spatial variables. For monochrome (black-and-white) images, a scalar function f ( i , j ) can be used to represent the light intensity at each spatial coordinate ( i , j ) . [link] illustrates the convention we will use for spatial coordinates to represent images.

Spatial coordinates used in digital image representation.

If we assume the coordinates to be a set of positive integers, for example i = 1 , , M and j = 1 , , N , then an image can be conveniently represented by a matrix.

f ( i , j ) = f ( 1 , 1 ) f ( 1 , 2 ) f ( 1 , N ) f ( 2 , 1 ) f ( 2 , 2 ) f ( 2 , N ) f ( M , 1 ) f ( M , 2 ) f ( M , N )

We call this an M × N image, and the elements of the matrix are known as pixels .

The pixels in digital images usually take on integer values in the finite range,

0 f ( i , j ) L m a x

where 0 represents the minimum intensity level (black), and L m a x is the maximum intensity level (white) that the digital image can take on. The interval [ 0 , L m a x ] is known as a gray scale .

In this lab, we will concentrate on 8-bit images, meaning that each pixel is represented by a single byte.Since a byte can take on 256 distinct values, L m a x is 255 for an 8-bit image.

Exercise

Download the file yacht.tif for the following section. Click here for help on the Matlab image command .

In order to process images within Matlab, we need to first understand their numerical representation.Download the image file yacht.tif . This is an 8-bit monochrome image.Read it into a matrix using

A = imread('yacht.tif');

Type whos to display your variables. Notice under the "Class" column that the A matrix elements are of type uint8 (unsigned integer, 8 bits). This means that Matlab is using a single byte to represent each pixel.Matlab cannot perform numerical computation on numbers of type uint8 , so we usually need to convert the matrix to a floating point representation.Create a double precision representation of the image using B = double(A); . Again, type whos and notice the difference in the number of bytes between A and B . In future sections, we will be performing computations on our images,so we need to remember to convert them to type double before processing them.

Display yacht.tif using the following sequence of commands:

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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Sherica
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
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or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
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Nancy Reply
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ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
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Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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China
Cied
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I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
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Porter
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Yasmin
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Cesar
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what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
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AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
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Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Purdue digital signal processing labs (ece 438). OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10593/1.4
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