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Introduction

Our understanding of the bonding between atoms in molecules tells us a great deal about the structures and properties of molecules. We can use the valence shell model of atoms and the Lewis model of bonding to explain and even predict what types of molecules will be stable, like CH 4 , and which are not expected to exist, like CH 5 . This is very powerful and quite beautiful. It means that the enormous number of known substances generally fit a fairly simple set of rules that describes their molecules. Without these rules, we would be lost trying to understand the properties of the more than 50 million different substances that chemists have identified. With these rules, though, we cannot only understand the properties of each molecule but even predict the properties of other molecules even if they have never been created before.

Chemistry, though, is about changes in matter. How do substances react with one another? If a molecule is stable under ordinary conditions, why does it become unstable when the temperature is raised or other molecules are added to the flask? We are interested in chemical reactions, but we are also interested in some physical changes which take place in matter. What happens when a substance changes from solid to liquid or liquid to gas? Why do some substances do this so readily?

Answering these questions often requires us to understand how the properties of individual molecules create the properties we see in large quantities of a substance. This seems like a very challenging problem. It is hard enough to think of the structure of one molecule and try to visualize how its structure creates properties such as dipole moments or intermolecular forces. It seems much harder to imagine thinking of a mole of these molecules all interacting with each other at the same time.

We need a way to relate macroscopic properties to molecular properties. As simple examples, let’s compare the substances water, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. Each of these is composed of molecules with just a few atoms, and all of the atoms have rather small masses, so the molecules all have low molecular weights. These three molecules have very similar molecular properties; however, the physical properties of these three substances are very different. Carbon dioxide and nitrogen are gases at room temperature, but water is a liquid up to 100 °C. We can only get nitrogen to condense by cooling it to -196 °C. This means that the boiling temperatures of water and nitrogen are different by almost 300 °C. Water is a liquid over a rather large temperature range, freezing at 0 °C and boiling at 100 °C. Nitrogen is very different – it is only a liquid between -210 °C and -196 °C. Carbon dioxide is even more interesting. At normal atmospheric pressure, carbon dioxide gas cannot be condensed into a liquid at all, no matter how cold we make it. If we keep cooling carbon dioxide gas to -60 °C, it converts directly to solid “dry ice.” We cannot melt dry ice either. Warming dry ice above -60 °C does not produce any liquid, but instead the solid “sublimes,” meaning that it converts directly into gas.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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