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This module provides an introduction to Chi-Square Distribution as a part of Collaborative Statistics collection (col10522) by Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean.

Student learning outcomes

By the end of this chapter, the student should be able to:

  • Interpret the chi-square probability distribution as the sample size changes.
  • Conduct and interpret chi-square goodness-of-fit hypothesis tests.
  • Conduct and interpret chi-square test of independence hypothesis tests.
  • Conduct and interpret chi-square homogeneity hypothesis tests.
  • Conduct and interpret chi-square single variance hypothesis tests.

Introduction

Have you ever wondered if lottery numbers were evenly distributed or if some numbers occurred with a greater frequency? How about if the types of movies people preferredwere different across different age groups? What about if a coffee machine was dispensing approximately the same amount of coffee each time? You could answer thesequestions by conducting a hypothesis test.

You will now study a new distribution, one that is used to determine the answers to the above examples. This distribution is called the Chi-square distribution.

In this chapter, you will learn the three major applications of the Chi-square distribution:

  • The goodness-of-fit test, which determines if data fit a particular distribution, such as with the lottery example
  • The test of independence, which determines if events are independent, such as with the movie example
  • The test of a single variance, which tests variability, such as with the coffee example

Though the Chi-square calculations depend on calculators or computers for most of the calculations, there is a table available (see the Table of Contents 15. Tables ). TI-83+ and TI-84 calculator instructions are included in the text.

Optional collaborative classroom activity

Look in the sports section of a newspaper or on the Internet for some sports data (baseball averages, basketball scores, golf tournament scores, football odds, swimmingtimes, etc.). Plot a histogram and a boxplot using your data. See if you can determine a probability distribution that your data fits. Have a discussion with the class about yourchoice.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Damian Reply
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Daniel
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Anassong
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s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
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are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
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s.
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SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
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Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
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China
Cied
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I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
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Source:  OpenStax, Collaborative statistics (custom online version modified by t. short). OpenStax CNX. Jul 15, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11476/1.5
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