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Introduction

When considering the synthesis of Group 13-15 compounds for electronic applications, the very nature of semiconductor behavior demands the use of high purity single crystal materials. The polycrystalline materials synthesized above are, therefore, of little use for 13-15 semiconductors but may, however, serve as the starting material for melt grown single crystals. For GaAs, undoubtedly the most important 13-15 (III - V) semiconductor, melt grown single crystals are achieved by one of two techniques: the Bridgman technique, and the Czochralski technique.

Bridgman growth

The Bridgman technique requires a two-zone furnace, of the type shown in [link] . The left hand zone is maintained at a temperature of ca . 610 °C, allowing sufficient overpressure of arsenic within the sealed system to prevent arsenic loss from the gallium arsenide. The right hand side of the furnace contains the polycrystalline GaAs raw material held at a temperature just above its melting point ( ca . 1240 °C). As the furnace moves from left to right, the melt cools and solidifies. If a seed crystal is placed at the left hand side of the melt (at a point where the temperature gradient is such that only the end melts), a specific orientation of single crystal may be propagated at the liquid-solid interface eventually to produce a single crystal.

A schematic diagram of a Bridgman two-zone furnace used for melt growths of single crystal GaAs.

Czochralski growth

The Czochralski technique, which is the most commonly used technique in industry, is shown in [link] . The process relies on the controlled withdrawal of a seed crystal from a liquid melt. As the seed is lowered into the melt, partial melting of the tip occurs creating the liquid solid interface required for crystal growth. As the seed is withdrawn, solidification occurs and the seed orientation is propagated into the grown material. The variable parameters of rate of withdrawal and rotation rate can control crystal diameter and purity. As shown in [link] the GaAs melt is capped by boron trioxide (B 2 O 3 ). The capping layer, which is inert to GaAs, prevents arsenic loss when the pressure on the surface is above atmospheric pressure. The growth of GaAs by this technique is thus termed liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) growth.

A schematic diagram of the Czochralski technique as used for growth of GaAs single crystal bond.

While the Bridgman technique is largely favored for GaAs growth, larger diameter wafers can be obtained by the Czochralski method. Both of these melt techniques produce materials heavily contaminated by the crucible, making them suitable almost exclusively as substrate material. Another disadvantage of these techniques is the production of defects in the material caused by the melt process.

Bibliography

  • W. G. Pfann, Zone Melting , John Wiley&Sons, New York (1966).
  • R. E. Williams, Gallium Arsenide Processing Techniques. Artech House (1984).

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
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ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
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I got X =-6
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ninjadapaul
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ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
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Uday
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
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or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
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Kristine 2*2*2=8
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Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
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Yasmin
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what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
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AMJAD
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AMJAD
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Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
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Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of electronic materials. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10719/1.9
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