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Hyoid bone

The hyoid bone is an independent bone that does not contact any other bone and thus is not part of the skull ( [link] ). It is a small U-shaped bone located in the upper neck near the level of the inferior mandible, with the tips of the “U” pointing posteriorly. The hyoid serves as the base for the tongue above, and is attached to the larynx below and the pharynx posteriorly. The hyoid is held in position by a series of small muscles that attach to it either from above or below. These muscles act to move the hyoid up/down or forward/back. Movements of the hyoid are coordinated with movements of the tongue, larynx, and pharynx during swallowing and speaking.

Hyoid bone

In this image, the location and structure of the hyoid bone are shown. The top panel shows a person’s face and neck, with the hyoid bone highlighted in grey. The middle panel shows the anterior view and the bottom panel shows the right anterior view.
The hyoid bone is located in the upper neck and does not join with any other bone. It provides attachments for muscles that act on the tongue, larynx, and pharynx.

Chapter review

The skull consists of the brain case and the facial bones. The brain case surrounds and protects the brain, which occupies the cranial cavity inside the skull. It consists of the rounded calvaria and a complex base. The brain case is formed by eight bones, the paired parietal and temporal bones plus the unpaired frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones. The narrow gap between the bones is filled with dense, fibrous connective tissue that unites the bones. The sagittal suture joins the right and left parietal bones. The coronal suture joins the parietal bones to the frontal bone, the lamboid suture joins them to the occipital bone, and the squamous suture joins them to the temporal bone.

The facial bones support the facial structures and form the upper and lower jaws. These consist of 14 bones, with the paired maxillary, palatine, zygomatic, nasal, lacrimal, and inferior conchae bones and the unpaired vomer and mandible bones. The ethmoid bone also contributes to the formation of facial structures. The maxilla forms the upper jaw and the mandible forms the lower jaw. The maxilla also forms the larger anterior portion of the hard palate, which is completed by the smaller palatine bones that form the posterior portion of the hard palate.

The floor of the cranial cavity increases in depth from front to back and is divided into three cranial fossae. The anterior cranial fossa is located between the frontal bone and lesser wing of the sphenoid bone. A small area of the ethmoid bone, consisting of the crista galli and cribriform plates, is located at the midline of this fossa. The middle cranial fossa extends from the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone to the petrous ridge (petrous portion of temporal bone). The right and left sides are separated at the midline by the sella turcica, which surrounds the shallow hypophyseal fossa. Openings through the skull in the floor of the middle fossa include the optic canal and superior orbital fissure, which open into the posterior orbit, the foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, and foramen spinosum, and the exit of the carotid canal with its underlying foramen lacerum. The deep posterior cranial fossa extends from the petrous ridge to the occipital bone. Openings here include the large foramen magnum, plus the internal acoustic meatus, jugular foramina, and hypoglossal canals. Additional openings located on the external base of the skull include the stylomastoid foramen and the entrance to the carotid canal.

The anterior skull has the orbits that house the eyeballs and associated muscles. The walls of the orbit are formed by contributions from seven bones: the frontal, zygomatic, maxillary, palatine, ethmoid, lacrimal, and sphenoid. Located at the superior margin of the orbit is the supraorbital foramen, and below the orbit is the infraorbital foramen. The mandible has two openings, the mandibular foramen on its inner surface and the mental foramen on its external surface near the chin. The nasal conchae are bony projections from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity. The large inferior nasal concha is an independent bone, while the middle and superior conchae are parts of the ethmoid bone. The nasal septum is formed by the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, the vomer bone, and the septal cartilage. The paranasal sinuses are air-filled spaces located within the frontal, maxillary, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones.

On the lateral skull, the zygomatic arch consists of two parts, the temporal process of the zygomatic bone anteriorly and the zygomatic process of the temporal bone posteriorly. The temporal fossa is the shallow space located on the lateral skull above the level of the zygomatic arch. The infratemporal fossa is located below the zygomatic arch and deep to the ramus of the mandible.

The hyoid bone is located in the upper neck and does not join with any other bone. It is held in position by muscles and serves to support the tongue above, the larynx below, and the pharynx posteriorly.

Watch this video to view a rotating and exploded skull with color-coded bones. Which bone (yellow) is centrally located and joins with most of the other bones of the skull?

The sphenoid bone joins with most other bones of the skull. It is centrally located, where it forms portions of the rounded brain case and cranial base.

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View this animation to see how a blow to the head may produce a contrecoup (counterblow) fracture of the basilar portion of the occipital bone on the base of the skull. Why may a basilar fracture be life threatening?

A basilar fracture may damage an artery entering the skull, causing bleeding in the brain.

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References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US). Injury prevention and control: traumatic brain injury [Internet]. Atlanta, GA; [cited 2013 Mar 18]. Available from: (External Link) .

Questions & Answers

send me a cytoplasm arganles anatomy and thire physology
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the organelles r found within the cytoplasm e.g. mitochondria etc.
Patrick
one by one detail
Hayat
the cell contains the cytoplasm, organelles, cytoskeleton, inclusions(foreign material), cytosol. of course the cell membrane. the nucleus. the nucleus is inside the nucleus. the rough endoplasmic reticulum is usually next to the smooth er
Patrick
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the mitochondria is in there and the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, ribosomes, peroxisomes and centrioles
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everything I mentioned after the nucleus kinda the nucleolus: r organelles
Patrick
Bones that are bind together by inelastic tissue connective tissue are called
Augustina Reply
vertebrae
KWAKU
the skull too can be part
KWAKU
the skull is 22 bones
Amiebo
vertebral bones
Drs
what are the body plains
Sanjana Reply
median plane,transverse or horizontal plane and coronal or frontal plane
ASIMENU
How do I summarize the whole of muscular system
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transcription copies DNA into RNA while replication makes another copy of DNA
Goode
A general explanation: Replication occurs when a copy of DNA is made. Transcription is the first step in the process of protein synthesis. Messenger RNA is made using a portion of the DNA molecule as a template.
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PRINCE
Relationship between essential amino acids and immune response
Eunice
transcription from DNA to rna involves the matching of the nucleotides represented by c,g, t and A, but where there is a t, it is replaced by a u- uracil
Patrick
what is the main function of the pcn?
DAVID Reply
career in the health professions, respond appropriately to signs of illness, help you in your roles as a parent, spouse
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student would have an appreciation of the heart anatomy to give understanding of anatomy while opening ideas of function and physiology
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study of the parts of the body
Coach
macro anatomy, study of big structures of the body that can be viewed with the naked eye
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that is called gross anatomy
Patrick
what is integumentry
Amiebo Reply
chemical level cell level tissue level organs level organ system organism
sam Reply
when you sitting close to a campfire your sense smell adapts the smell but when the trace of smoke is introduced into your environments it becomes unsual for you
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7 cervical (c1 atlas and c2 axis help the neck rotate) 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 1 sacral and 2 coccyx
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breakfast at 7, lunch at 12, and dinner at 5. sacrum holds 5, coccyx holds 4
Patrick
really there's just one coccyx and sacrum
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elasticity of the vagina
Mariam Reply
The vagina is an elastic muscular wall
antouman
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antouman
It has I think squamous cuboidal or maybe columnar epithelium designed for secretion, expansion and friction.
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integumentary system is the skin the skin is protection all the body and contain deid cells
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the largest organ of the body
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skin is largest organ
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what is the best way to remember the cranial bones or any other bones ?
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skeletal system?
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look at the diagram structure and then remember it considering it your own body i memorise like that
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tuborisity
Zara
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Zara
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Kristina
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Zara
the majors
Toni
the thin skin does not have stratum lucidium I believe
Patrick
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Patrick
if u know the bones, the muscle has part of the name of the bone in it
Patrick
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blood is a connective tissue which transport oxygen and other nutrients to body
Zara Reply
which type of protein is blood?
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what is blood?
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blood is a connective tissue which transport oxygen and nutrients to body
Zara
which type of protein is blood?
Zara
haemoglobin
Rashid
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Zara
yes it is
Rashid
it is globular
Rashid
a vascular structure compose of vessels.
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what is the functions of lymph
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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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