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Wavefront engineering

One way to get around the fundamental limitations of an imaging system illustrated in [link] is through one of a variety of techniques often termed wavefront engineering. Here, not only is the amplitude mapped from the object plane to the image plane, but the phase structure of the light going through the mask is manipulated to improve the contrast and allow for effective values of k 1 lower than the theoretical minimum for uniform illumination. The most important example of these techniques is the phase shift mask or PSM. Here the mask consists of two types of areas, those that allow light to pass through unaffected and some regions where the amplitude of the light is unaffected but its phase is shifted. The resulting electric fields will then sum to zero in some places where use of an ordinary mask would have resulted in a positive intensity.

There are many problems with the practical introduction of various phase shifting techniques. Construction of masks with phase shifting elements (usually a thin layer of PMMA) is difficult and expensive. Mask damage, already a key problem in conventional production techniques, becomes an even greater issue as traditional mask repair techniques can no longer be used. Also identifying errors in a mask is made more difficult by the odd design.

Interaction with resists

The ultimate resolution of a photolithographic process is not dependent on optics alone, but also on the interaction with the resist. One of the key concerns, particularly as wavelengths of sources become shorter, is the ability of the source light to penetrate the resist film. Many polymers absorb strongly in the UV which can limit the interaction to the surface. In such a case only a thin layer of the polymer is exposed and the pattern may not be fully uncovered during developing. One important property of resist is the presence of saturable absorption .. Saturable absorbers are those absorption sites in the polymer that when excited to a higher state remain there for relatively long periods of time and do not continue to absorb into higher states. If only saturable absorption is present in a polymer film, then continued irradiation eventually leads to transparency as all absorption sites will be saturated. This allows light penetration through the resist film with full exposure to the substrate surface.

Full penetration of the film leads to a second problem, multiple reflection interference. This occurs when light which has penetrated the film to the substrate is then reflected back towards the surface. The result is a standing wave interference pattern which causes uneven exposure through the film. The problem becomes more severe as optical limits are approached where feature size is approximately equal to the wavelength of the light source meaning such standing waves are the same size as the irradiated features. In the most advanced lithography techniques such as 248 nm lithography with excimer lasers, a special anti-reflectance coating must be laid down before the resist is deposited. Development of an AR coating that has no adverse effects during the exposure and development process is difficult.

One completely new approach to photolithography resists are top-surface-imaged resists or TSI resists. These processes do not require light penetration through the whole volume of resist. In a TSI resist, a silyl amine is selectively in-diffused from the gas phase into a phenolic polymer in response to the laser irradiation. This diffusion process creates a silyl ether, and development takes place in the form of an oxygen plasma etch, sometimes termed 'dry developing'. Depth of focus limitations are thus avoided as exposure is necessary only at the surface of the resist layer, and the resolution of the etching process determines the final resist profile. Such a technique has tremendous advantages, particularly as source wavelengths become shorter and transparent polymers more rare. Such as resist has a clear optical advantage as well since the image need only be formed at the surface of the resist layer reducing the DOF needed to 100 nm or less, allowing for larger numerical aperture lithography systems with smaller critical dimensions.

Light sources

Current photolithography techniques in production utilize ultraviolet lamps as the light source. In the most advanced production facilities, 0.35 µm mercury i-line technology is used. For the next generation of chips such as 64 Mbit DRAMS better performance is necessary and either i-line technology combined with PSM or a new light source is required. Certainly for the 256 Mbit generation using 0.25 µm technology, the i-line source is no longer adequate. The apparent successor is the 248 nm KrF laser, which entered the most advanced production facilities in the late 1990s. KrF technology is often referred to in the literature as Deep UV or DUV lithography. For further shrinkage to 0.18 µm technology, the ArF excimer laser at 193 nm will likely be used with the transition likely to take place in the first few years of the next decade.

At critical dimensions lower than 0.18 - 0.1 µm and below, a whole host of technological problems will need to be overcome in every stage of manufacturing including photolithography. One likely scheme for future lithography is to use X-rays where the wavelength of the light is so much smaller than the feature size such that proximity printing can be used. This is where the mask is placed close to the surface and an X-ray source is scanned across using no optics. Common X-ray sources for such techniques include synchrotron radiation and laser produced plasmas. It has also been widely suggested that the cost of implementing X-ray or other post-optical techniques together with the increased cost of every other manufacturing process step will make improvements beyond 0.1 µm cost prohibitive where benefits in increased circuit speed and density will be dwarfed by massive manufacturing cost. It is noted however that such predictions have been made in the past with regard to other technological barriers.

Bibliography

  • M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics 6th Edition , Pergamon Press, New York (1980).
  • M. Nakase, IEICE Trans. Electron. , 1993, E76-C , 26.
  • M. Rothschild, A. R. Forte, M. W. Horn, R. R. Kunz, S. C. Palmateer, and J. H. C. Sedlacek, IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics , 1995, 1 , 916.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
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Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
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Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
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Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of electronic materials. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10719/1.9
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