<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >


Cross-contamination must be managed so that materials cannot contaminate others. Control systems should be in place and your staff made aware of their responsibility to prevent contamination. Your staff must also be aware of correct product handling and personal hygiene.

Cleaning and Disinfection

The equipment used for producing, processing, and storing products should be sanitized on a regular basis. It is good practice to have a cleaning schedule in place.

The packing, storage, and distribution must be controlled so that no biological hazard can contaminate or survive on food products. This process will entail suitable packaging for the product and temperature control in storage and distribution.

Conditions for Use

The directions you provide to the consumer are very important. Providing information on how to correctly store and cook the product can reduce the risks of biological hazards.

Chemical hazards

There are different types of chemical hazards associated with food:

  • naturally-occurring chemicals
  • intentionally-added chemicals
  • unintentional or incidental chemical additives.

Control points for chemical hazards must be identified during the process and storage of food products. Such can be done by using hazard analysis technique.

Naturally occurring chemical hazards

There is a perception that if something is naturally grown or raised it will not have any chemical hazards present. This belief is not true; naturally occurring chemical hazards are present in many foods. For example, there are toxins found in many varieties of mushrooms and some seafood.

In many countries there is legislation relating to the presence or level of toxins, so you should be aware If you are using foods which may contain these toxins. It would be good practice to refer to legislation and analysis samples of the product before use.

These chemical hazards are often classified as biological, but the important thing is that it be recognized as a hazard and controlled.

Examples of naturally occurring chemical hazards are

  • toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus cereus
  • Scombrotoxin (histamine) – fish
  • Saxitoxin – paralytic shellfish toxin
  • Ciguatoxin – finfish
  • Mycotoxins – produced by moulds (fungi).

Intentionally added chemicals – food additives

There are two types of intentionally added chemicals, direct and indirect food additives.

Direct additives are compounds such as preservatives; these include nitrites, sodium benzoate, and sulfiting agents. You must be aware of the regulations relating to the use of these compounds since legislation does differ from country to country.

Additives such as colors and nutritional additives (such as vitamins) are also direct. All direct additives must be included on all labels. You can see from the table the risks of using direct food additives improperly.

Indirect food additives include

  • adhesives
  • paper and paperboard components
  • polymers
  • adjuvants, protection aids, and sanitizers.

In most cases these indirect food additives are undesirable and migrate into the food from inappropriate packaging.

Questions & Answers

richa Reply
if sinx°=sin@, then @ is - ?
the value of tan15°•tan20°•tan70°•tan75° -
0.037 than find sin and tan?
Jon Reply
cos24/25 then find sin and tan
Deepak Reply
Santosh Reply
At the start of a trip, the odometer on a car read 21,395. At the end of the trip, 13.5 hours later, the odometer read 22,125. Assume the scale on the odometer is in miles. What is the average speed the car traveled during this trip?
Kimberly Reply
-3 and -2
Julberte Reply
tan(?cosA)=cot(?sinA) then prove cos(A-?/4)=1/2?2
Chirag Reply
tan(pi.cosA)=cot(?sinA) then prove cos(A-?/4)=1/2?2
Chirag Reply
sin x(1+tan x)+cos x(1+cot x) = sec x +cosec
Ankit Reply
let p(x)xq
Sophie Reply
To the nearest whole number, what was the initial population in the culture?
Cheyenne Reply
do posible if one line is parallel
Fran Reply
The length is one inch more than the width, which is one inch more than the height. The volume is 268.125 cubic inches.
Vamprincess Reply
Using Earth’s time of 1 year and mean distance of 93 million miles, find the equation relating ?T??T? and ?a.?
James Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Food safety knowledge network basic level requirements. OpenStax CNX. Dec 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11142/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Food safety knowledge network basic level requirements' conversation and receive update notifications?