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This book is organized into sections and chapters, each somewhat self-contained. The earlier chapters give a fairly complete developmentof the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) as a series expansion of signals in terms of wavelets and scaling functions. The later chapters are shortdescriptions of generalizations of the DWT and of applications. They give references to other works, and serve as a sort of annotated bibliography.Because we intend this book as an introduction to wavelets which already have an extensive literature, we have included a rather long bibliography.However, it will soon be incomplete because of the large number of papers that are currently being published. Nevertheless, a guide to the otherliterature is essential to our goal of an introduction.

A good sketch of the philosophy of wavelet analysis and the history of its development can be found in a book published by the NationalAcademy of Science in the chapter by Barbara Burke [link] . She has written an excellent expanded version in [link] , which should be read by anyone interested in wavelets. Daubechies gives a brief history ofthe early research in [link] .

Many of the results and relationships presented in this book are in the form of theorems and proofs or derivations. A real effort has been madeto ensure the correctness of the statements of theorems but the proofs are often only outlines of derivations intended to give insight into theresult rather than to be a formal proof. Indeed, many of the derivations are put in the Appendix in order not to clutter the presentation. We hopethis style will help the reader gain insight into this very interesting but sometimes obscure new mathematical signal processing tool.

We use a notation that is a mixture of that used in the signal processing literature and that in the mathematical literature. We hope this willmake the ideas and results more accessible, but some uniformity and cleanness is lost.

The authors acknowledge AFOSR, ARPA, NSF, Nortel, Inc., Texas Instruments, Inc. and Aware, Inc. for their support of this work. We specificallythank H. L. Resnikoff, who first introduced us to wavelets and who proved remarkably accurate in predicting their power and success. We also thankW. M. Lawton, R. O. Wells, Jr., R. G. Baraniuk, J. E. Odegard, I. W. Selesnick, M. Lang, J. Tian, and members of the Rice ComputationalMathematics Laboratory for many of the ideas and results presented in this book. The first named author would like to thank the Maxfield and Oshmanfamilies for their generous support. The students in EE-531 and EE-696 at Rice University provided valuable feedback as did Bruce Francis, StrelaVasily, Hans Schüssler, Peter Steffen, Gary Sitton, Jim Lewis, Yves Angel, Curt Michel, J. H. Husoy, Kjersti Engan, Ken Castleman, Jeff Trinkle,Katherine Jones, and other colleagues at Rice and elsewhere.

We also particularly want to thank Tom Robbins and his colleagues at Prentice Hall for their support and help. Their reviewers addedsignificantly to the book.

We would appreciate learning of any errors or misleading statements that any readers discover. Indeed, any suggestions for improvement of the bookwould be most welcome. Send suggestions or comments via email to csb@rice.edu. Software, articles, errata for this book, and otherinformation on the wavelet research at Rice can be found on the world-wide-web URL: http: / / dsp.rice.edu/ with links to other sites where wavelet research is being done.

C. Sidney Burrus, Ramesh A. Gopinath, and Haitao Guo

Houston, Texas; Yorktown Heights, New York; and Cuppertino, California

Instructions to the reader

Although this book in arranged in a somewhat progressive order, starting with basic ideas and definitions, moving to a rather complete discussionof the basic wavelet system, and then on to generalizations, one should skip around when reading or studying from it. Depending on the backgroundof the reader, he or she should skim over most of the book first, then go back and study parts in detail. The Introduction at the beginning and theSummary at the end should be continually consulted to gain or keep a perspective; similarly for the Table of Contents and Index. The Matlab programs in the Appendix or the Wavelet Toolbox from Mathworks or other wavelet software should be used for continual experimentation. Thelist of references should be used to find proofs or detail not included here or to pursue research topics or applications. The theory andapplication of wavelets are still developing and in a state of rapid growth. We hope this book will help open the door to this fascinating newsubject.

Openstax-connexions edition

We thank Pearson, Inc. for permission (given in 2012) to put this content (originally published in 1998 with Prentice Hall) into the OpenStax Cnx system online under the Creative Commons attribution only (cc-by) copyright license. We also thank Daniel Williamson at OpenStax for his contributions. This edition has some minor errors corrected and some more recent references added. In particular, Stéphane Mallat latest book, a Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing [link] also available in OpenStax at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10711/latest/ and Kovačević, Goyal, and Vetterli's new book, Fourier and Wavelet Signal Processing [link] online at http://www.fourierandwavelets.org/ A valuable collection of basic papers has been published [link] and a book on Frames [link] .

If one starts with Louis Scharf's book, A First Course in Electrical and Computer Engineering , which is in OpenStax at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10685/latest/ followed by Richard Baraniuk's book, Signals and Systems , at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10064/latest/ and Martin Vetterli et al book, Foundations of Signal Processing at http://www.fourierandwavelets.org/ one has an excellent set of signal processing resources, all online.

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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Sherica
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Sherica
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Tamia
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Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Wavelets and wavelet transforms. OpenStax CNX. Aug 06, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11454/1.6
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