<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

In people with symptomatic HIV disease there are likely to be several overlapping processes taking place:

Reductions in food intake

This may be due to painful sores in the mouth. Fatigue, depression, changes in mental state and other psychological factors mayalso play a role by affecting a person's appetite and interest in food. Economic factors also affect food availability and the nutritionalquality of food. Side effects from medications can also result in lower dietary intakes that can cause weight loss associated with HIV/AIDS.

Nutrient malabsorption

Malabsorption accompanies the frequent bouts of diarrhoea that affect people with HIV as a result of various infections.It is also believed that HIV infection itself may cause nutrientmalabsorption.

Metabolic alterations

HIV infection results in increased energy and protein need as well as inefficient use and loss of nutrients. Changes in metabolismoccur during HIV infection from severe reductions in food intake as well as from the immune system's response to the infection.

When food is restricted, the body responds by altering insulin and glucagon production, which regulate the flow of sugar and othernutrients in the intestine, blood, liver and other body tissues. Over time, the body uses up its carbohydrate stores from muscle and liver tissue and itbegins to break down body protein to produce glucose. This process causes protein loss and muscle wasting.

Management of weight loss in HIV/AIDS is complicated by the fact that these three mechanisms are not mutually exclusive. Weightloss and wasting in people with AIDS may be the result of all three processes.

For the first two causes of weight loss and wasting, malnutrition can be reduced by treating the immediate sources of theproblem (e.g. oral thrush, mouth sores, other infections) and providing foods that are soft and well tolerated by the infected person. People withdiarrhea should take plenty of fluids or use oral rehydration solutions to avoid dehydration and replace the lost fluids in the body. Also, if possiblepeople with symptomatic HIV should try to eat as frequently as possible, even if the amounts of food are very small each time.

Nutrition is an essential part of any HIV care package. Nutritional care and support includes many components, and particularlywhen a person is asymptomatic, it must include an adequate quantity and quality of food. But improved nutrition is not enough in itself topermanently keep people healthy. History provides evidence of this, as in the late 1980s many people with HIV in the United States and other countries,developed opportunistic infections, progressed to AIDS and died, even though they had an excellent diet. However, good nutrition may help prolongthe period of time between HIV infection and the onset of OIs.

In some communities affordable food supplementation may be feasible and it can have a positive impact on both body composition andweight. For example, The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO) has been distributing food to clients for 10 years as part of an overall communityoutreach response in Uganda.

With regard to vitamins and minerals, it is unclear to what extent these are helpful in the early stages of HIV infection. Severalstudies have been published on the role of vitamins and mineral in HIV disease progression and mortality. Primary associations were initiallypromising and micronutrient supplementation has the potential in a resource poor country to be an affordable and relatively easy to deliverpublic health measure. But the findings from micronutrient supplementation trials have however been mixed.

(For reading source, click here .)

Impure water

Those infected with HIV should make every effort to ensure that the water they drink is pure. As an individual infected with theHIV virus, one's immune system is more susceptible to contracting various infections and other diseases. Impure water is a source of where suchinfectious diseases may travel or originate; thus, it is ideal that HIV infected persons and AIDS patients drink water that is pure and free of suchbacteria.

Contact with animals

As is the case with impure water, animals are carriers of various diseases and infections that HIV/AIDS patients are moresusceptible to because of the weakness of their immune systems. As a result, it is in the best interest of such infected persons to be aware of the animalsin their surroundings. Be sure not to exchange any bodily fluids with animals and to be aware of meats consumed. Again, it is not necessarily thatyou may contract HIV from the animals; it is the fact that they may carry various diseases and infections that you are likely to contract if you comein contact with them.

Guidelines for hiv infected and affected children

Guidelines

Guidelines ( PDF )

Please see the PDF file above for reference information on the wonderful organization who has provided theseguidelines. The publications are designed for use by volunteer counselors, non-professional counselors, and professional counselorswho do not extensive experience in counseling in the context of HIV and AIDS.

The guidelines are the result of workshops organised under the SAT (School Without Walls), brining together professionalcounselors, people living with HIV or AIDS, staff of AIDS Service Organizations and people working in the field addressed by thepublication. Much of this information came from a workshop on counseling children with HIV or children affected by HIV and AIDS, facilitated byJonathan Brakarsh and Clare Rudd of the Family Support Trust (FST) fo Zimbabwe. These guidelines reflect the experiences of the counselors andactivities who participated. Virginia Knight Tyson and Sarah Lee provided editorial assistance. Joel Chikwara drew the cartoons.

To date, SAT has publisehd counseling guidelines in English and Portuguese on the following subjects:

  • Disclosure of HIV Status
  • Child Sexual Abuse
  • Palliative Care and Bereavement
  • Domestic Violence
  • Survival Skills
  • Basic Counseling Skills

SAT is a project of the Canadian International Development Agency delivered by the Canadian Public Health Association.It has been at the forefront in supporting the community response to HIV and AIDS in Southern Africa since 1991. School Without Walls is an intiative tovalidate, promote and diffuse souther African experience and expertise in responsing to HIV and AIDS.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Hiv-aids for educators. OpenStax CNX. Mar 07, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10329/1.6
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Hiv-aids for educators' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask