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The second component of the model is place (Johnson et al., 2009). The authors argued that standard curricula and instruction have created a situation in which students from substantially different places receive substantially identical educational experiences. Johnson et al. acknowledged the need for basic skills, but pointed out that marginalized populations, such as those in rural Appalachia, may not connect with or have their needs fully met by the standard curricula. He argued that place-based learning strategies that include standard academic content, but also emphasize the local community and service learning could better address the needs of students.

Johnson et al. (2009) argued for an expanded role of the school as a community center. They described the concept of place-conscious capacity-building as including three things to support community: (a) professional development for educators that addresses the specific characteristics of a particular place, (b) broadened, meaningful roles for community members within the school, and (c) structures that lead to long-term improvements in student and community outcomes. Johnson et al. argued that this expanded role is especially important in rural Appalachia because of the lack of other “institutional places” (para. 13).

The third component of the model is people (Johnson et al., 2009). Johnson et al. described its people as “the primary asset to benefit schools and communities in rural Appalachia” (para. 14). They emphasized locating and building relationships with those outside the school who have legitimate, authentic leadership authority. Additionally, the authors argued that educational leaders should use their authority to empower and advocate for the people in their community.


Should educators invest valuable time and resources in efforts to respond to students’ culture? Is social justice worthy of our efforts to restructure schools? Teachers’ home cultures are often different from many of their students. In 2000, only 24.4% of the adult population were college graduates (Haaga , 2004). Accordingly, the vast majority of children in our schools live in homes with parents who are not college educated. This fact alone is an argument for educators to be more cognizant of and attentive to their students’ home cultures. Despite efforts, there remain gaps in the achievement between marginalized groups and white, middle-class students. Ensuring equity in educational opportunity should be a value we embrace.

The model proposed by Johnson et al. (2009) provides a framework where the definition of knowledge includes knowledge learned informally outside school. The model includes an emphasis on the community in which the school is located. It recognizes, values, and advocates for the people of the community. This model’s use is certainly appropriate for, but should not be limited to, schools in rural Appalachia. Schools in Appalachia are more alike than different from other schools. Schools, even within the same district, are unique and draw students from unique communities. Johnson provided a model of leadership that could be used in most, if not all, schools. Students in all schools benefit from having educators who understand and appreciate students’ home communities and cultures, and who embed this knowledge within the curriculum and instruction. As Johnson et al. noted, “the power to effect change can evolve from understanding knowledge in the place where one is standing and with whom one is standing” (para. 24).

Implications for school leaders

Implications for practice and leadership development

Educational leaders must regularly examine their practices and the practices of others in their school to ensure that students are served equitably and that students’ home cultures are understood and valued (Johnson et al., 2009). Leaders must be deliberate in their efforts to get to know their schools’ communities including the people, places, and practices that make each community unique. This will require spending time outside the school and in the community.

Educational leadership program leaders must be willing to redesign programs in order to include more stringent admission procedures and curricula that address cultural responsiveness and social justice (Farmer&Higham, 2007; McKensie et al., 2008; Johnson et al., 2009). This will be challenging as programs try to maintain enrollment numbers (Farmer&Higham) and keep programs to their current length (McKensie et al.).

Case study and activity

Gaps in Practice –

  • Identify the various home cultures of the students in your school or district.
  • Describe the institutional culture of your school or district.
  • Identify areas in which the institutional culture of your school or district is not inclusive of students’ home cultures.
  • Describe what school leaders can do to support and facilitate a culturally responsive approach to teaching and learning in your school or district.


Appalachian Regional Commission, 2009. The Appalachian Region. Retrieved June 22, 2009 from (External Link)

Carmichael, B. E. (1968). Impacts on education in regional areas . Educational Leadership, 26(1), 17-20.

Darling-Hammond, L., LaPointe, M., Meyerson, D., Orr, M. T., and Cohen, C. (2007). Preparing school leaders for a changing world: Lessons from exemplary leadership development programs. Stanford, CA: Stanford University, Stanford Educational Leadership Institute.

Haaga, J. (2004). Demographic and socioeconomic change in Appalachia: Educational attainment in Appalachia. Retrieved June 24, 2009 from (External Link) . Population Reference Bureau, Appalachian Regional Commission.

Johnson, J., Shope, S.,&Roush, J. (2009). Toward a responsive model for educational leadership in rural Appalachia: Merging theory and practice. NCPEA Education Leadership Review , 10(2). 1-20.

King, K. A., Artiles, A. J., Kozleski, E. B. (2009). Professional learning for culturally responsive teaching . Retrieved June 24, 2009 from (External Link) . National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems at Arizona State University.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The dreamkeepers: Successful teacher of African American children. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal , 32(3), 465-491.

Leithwood, K., Louis, K.S., Anderson, S., and Wahlstrom, K. (2004). Executive summary: How leadership influences student learning. New York: Wallace Foundation.

Lewis, R. L.,&Billings, D. B. (n.d.). Appalachian Culture and Economic Development. Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University. Retrieved June 26, 2009 from (External Link)

McKenzie, K. B., Christman, D. E., Hernandez, F., Fierro, E., Capper, C., Dantley, M., Gonzalez, M. L., Cambron-McCabe, N.,&Scheurich, J. J., (2008). From the field: A proposal for educating leaders for social justice. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(1), 111-138.

Smith, G. A., (2002). Going local. Educational Leadership, 60(1), 30-34.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
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I know this work
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
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how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
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I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
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Commplementary angles
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
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rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
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Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
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what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
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how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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Source:  OpenStax, 21st century theories of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10727/1.1
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