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The control flow of a language specify the order in which operations are performed. Each program includes many statements. Statements are processed one after another in sequence, except where such control statements result in jumps.

Statements and blocks

An expression such as x = 0 or i++ or printf(. . . .) becomes a statement when it is followed by a semicolon, as in

x=0; i++;printf(. . . .);

In the C language, the semicolon is a statement terminator.

A block also called a compound statement, or compound statement, lets you group any number of data definitions, declarations, and statements into one statement. All definitions, declarations, and statements enclosed within a single set of braces are treated as a single statement. You can use a block wherever a single statement is allowed.

In blocks, declarations and definitions can appear anywhere, mixed in with other code. Note that there is no semicolon after the right brace that ends a block.

{ into I = 0; /* Declarations */ static long a;extern long max;++a; /* Statements */ if( a>= max) { . . . } /* A nested block */. . . }
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An expression statement is an expression followed by a semicolon. The syntax is:

[expression] ;

The expression—an assignment or function call, for example—is evaluated for its side effects. The type and value of the expression are discarded.

A statement consisting only of a semicolon is called an empty statement, and does not perform any operation. For Example

for ( i = 0; str[i] != '\0'; ++i ); // Empty statement

If, if else statements

The if statement has two forms:

if(expression) statement


if(expression) statement1 else statement2

In the first form, if (and only if) the expression is non-zero, the statement is executed. If the expression is zero, the statement is ignored. Remember that the statement can be compound; that is the way to put several statements under the control of a single if.

The second form is like the first except that if the statement shown as statement1 is selected then statement2 will not be, and vice versa.

Here are the flowcharts of the two forms of if statement

The form involving else works the same way, so we can also write this.

if(expression) if(expression)statement elsestatement

this is now ambiguous. It is not clear, except as indicated by the indentation, which of the ifs is responsible for the else. If we follow the rules that the previous example suggests, then the second if is followed by a statement, and is therefore itself a statement, so the else belongs to the first if.

That is not the way that C views it. The rule is that an else belongs to the first if above that hasn't already got an else. In the example we're discussing, the else goes with the second if.

To prevent any unwanted association between an else and an if just above it, the if can be hidden away by using a compound statement, here it is.

if(expression){ if(expression)statement }elsestatement


Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to computer science. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10776/1.1
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