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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Define the terms hyperpnea and hyperventilation
  • Describe the effect of exercise on the respiratory system
  • Describe the effect of high altitude on the respiratory system
  • Discuss the process of acclimatization

At rest, the respiratory system performs its functions at a constant, rhythmic pace, as regulated by the respiratory centers of the brain. At this pace, ventilation provides sufficient oxygen to all the tissues of the body. However, there are times that the respiratory system must alter the pace of its functions in order to accommodate the oxygen demands of the body.

Hyperpnea

Hyperpnea is an increased depth and rate of ventilation to meet an increase in oxygen demand as might be seen in exercise or disease, particularly diseases that target the respiratory or digestive tracts. This does not significantly alter blood oxygen or carbon dioxide levels, but merely increases the depth and rate of ventilation to meet the demand of the cells. In contrast, hyperventilation    is an increased ventilation rate that is independent of the cellular oxygen needs and leads to abnormally low blood carbon dioxide levels and high (alkaline) blood pH.

Interestingly, exercise does not cause hyperpnea as one might think. Muscles that perform work during exercise do increase their demand for oxygen, stimulating an increase in ventilation. However, hyperpnea during exercise appears to occur before a drop in oxygen levels within the muscles can occur. Therefore, hyperpnea must be driven by other mechanisms, either instead of or in addition to a drop in oxygen levels. The exact mechanisms behind exercise hyperpnea are not well understood, and some hypotheses are somewhat controversial. However, in addition to low oxygen, high carbon dioxide, and low pH levels, there appears to be a complex interplay of factors related to the nervous system and the respiratory centers of the brain.

First, a conscious decision to partake in exercise, or another form of physical exertion, results in a psychological stimulus that may trigger the respiratory centers of the brain to increase ventilation. In addition, the respiratory centers of the brain may be stimulated through the activation of motor neurons that innervate muscle groups that are involved in the physical activity. Finally, physical exertion stimulates proprioceptors, which are receptors located within the muscles, joints, and tendons, which sense movement and stretching; proprioceptors thus create a stimulus that may also trigger the respiratory centers of the brain. These neural factors are consistent with the sudden increase in ventilation that is observed immediately as exercise begins. Because the respiratory centers are stimulated by psychological, motor neuron, and proprioceptor inputs throughout exercise, the fact that there is also a sudden decrease in ventilation immediately after the exercise ends when these neural stimuli cease, further supports the idea that they are involved in triggering the changes of ventilation.

Questions & Answers

what are the different types of respiratory system
Tejal Reply
how can I do practice question
takesha Reply
through quetion answer format
mutesi
what type of gland is the liver?
deng
A solid gland? Is that what you meant? Or u could say it's a digestive gland but also filtrates blood, among other things. So it kinda fits many roles. Unless I'm wrong, but feel free to correct me if I am.
Ryan
what is the consequence of performing CPR on a functioning heart.
Pyefa Reply
The central part of the body
Alex Reply
i thought a cell is the fuctional unit of an orgarnism.
mutesi Reply
what is the name for inflammation of middle ear?
Madu
otitis media
Chidiebere
Describe an experiment to verify the law of constant composition
Ssekamatte Reply
amazing the exprement is hard to set up can you please help us describe it for us?
Momoh
Explain the major features and properties of the cell membrane
Robina Reply
contants ofa lipid bilayers w the enbedded proteins it is faction of the cell membaren
bariise
it is made up of protein,fat and a small portion of carbohydrates. it is semipermeable but impermeable to uncharged water molecules.
Chidiebere
thx
Robina
What are blood vessels of will's circle
Madu Reply
vertebral arteries and cerebral arteries
Chidiebere
What are sutures of cranial cavity ?
Madu Reply
there are four. the coronal, sagittal, squamous and lambhoidal sutured
Chidiebere
structure of a cell
Robina
pelvic cavity contents?
unimarwat Reply
ilium ,ischium ,pubis
Madu
but that is the three parts of the hip bone
Chidiebere
Describe the muscular skeletal system in terms of definition.. Skeleton Apendicular skeleton Axial skeleton Joints
Sherrine Reply
the basic framework of body made and cartilage is called skeleton skeleton which form limbs is called appendicular skeleton skeleton which form main axis of body is called axial skeleton the points at two or more bones meets is called joints
unimarwat
write short notes on ligaments,curves and moverment of vertebral column.
mutesi Reply
cranial nerves notes
unimarwat
what is the Analysis
ROHIT Reply
what is Anatomy
ROHIT Reply
it's a organs and bouns reading
AJITH
Cutting Up
Nonie
Cutting Up
Nonie
to dissect
Nonie
what usually cause blood pressurae
Abdullateef Reply
too much salt in the diet
Abuusu
older age
Abuusu
Even family history of high blood pressure
Abuusu
yes
Yaqub
too much salt in the diet
Yaqub
stress is the leading factor
Richard
smoking and too much alcohol consumption
Annu
obesity can also cause hypertension
Yaqub
high temperature of the body high salt of the body
Drs
how does the temperature affect the blood pressure?
Chidiebere
sex
Onavwie
What sex.?
Arshad
Male
Vikas
i mearnt gender,there's increased blood pressure in male than female
Onavwie
guys, read the question, involuntary pumping of heart causes the blood pressure in the arteries, he has not asked about high or low BP.
Jess

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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