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Another control structure is the ability to declare a function as "PURE." A PURE function has no side effects other than through its parameters. The programmer is guaranteeing that a PURE function can execute simultaneously on many processors with no ill effects. This allows HPF to assume that it will only operate on local data and does not need any data communication during the duration of the function execution. The programmer can also declare which parameters of the function are input parameters, output parameters, and input-output parameters.

Hpf intrinsics

The companies who marketed SIMD computers needed to come up with significant tools to allow efficient collective operations across all the processors. A perfect example of this is the SUM operation. To SUM the value of an array spread across N processors, the simplistic approach takes N steps. However, it is possible to accomplish it in log(N) steps using a technique called parallel-prefix-sum . By the time HPF was in development, a number of these operations had been identified and implemented. HPF took the opportunity to define standardized syntax for these operations.

A sample of these operations includes:

  • SUM_PREFIX Performs various types of parallel-prefix summations.
  • ALL_SCATTER Distributes a single value to a set of processors.
  • GRADE_DOWN Sorts into decreasing order.
  • IANY Computes the logical OR of a set of values.

While there are a large number of these intrinsic functions, most applications use only a few of the operations.

Hpf extrinsics

In order to allow the vendors with diverse architectures to provide their particular advantage, HPF included the capability to link "extrinsic" functions. These functions didn't need to be written in FORTRAN 90/HPF and performed a number of vendor-supported capabilities. This capability allowed users to perform such tasks as the creation of hybrid applications with some HPF and some message passing.

High performance computing programmers always like the ability to do things their own way in order to eke out that last drop of performance.

Heat flow in hpf

To port our heat flow application to HPF, there is really only a single line of code that needs to be added. In the example below, we've changed to a larger two-dimensional array:


INTEGER PLATESIZ,MAXTIME PARAMETER(PLATESIZ=2000,MAXTIME=200)!HPF$ DISTRIBUTE PLATE(*,BLOCK) REAL*4 PLATE(PLATESIZ,PLATESIZ)INTEGER TICK PLATE = 0.0* Add BoundariesPLATE(1,:) = 100.0 PLATE(PLATESIZ,:) = -40.0PLATE(:,PLATESIZ) = 35.23 PLATE(:,1) = 4.5DO TICK = 1,MAXTIMEPLATE(2:PLATESIZ-1,2:PLATESIZ-1) = ( + PLATE(1:PLATESIZ-2,2:PLATESIZ-1) ++ PLATE(3:PLATESIZ-0,2:PLATESIZ-1) + + PLATE(2:PLATESIZ-1,1:PLATESIZ-2) ++ PLATE(2:PLATESIZ-1,3:PLATESIZ-0) ) / 4.0 PRINT 1000,TICK, PLATE(2,2)1000 FORMAT('TICK = ',I5, F13.8) ENDDO* END

You will notice that the HPF directive distributes the array columns using the BLOCK approach, keeping all the elements within a column on a single processor. At first glance, it might appear that ( BLOCK , BLOCK ) is the better distribution. However, there are two advantages to a ( * , BLOCK ) distribution. First, striding down a column is a unit-stride operation and so you might just as well process an entire column. The more significant aspect of the distribution is that a ( BLOCK , BLOCK ) distribution forces each processor to communicate with up to eight other processors to get its neighboring values. Using the (*, BLOCK ) distribution, each processor will have to exchange data with at most two processors each time step.

When we look at PVM, we will look at this same program implemented in a SPMD-style message-passing fashion. In that example, you will see some of the details that HPF must handle to properly execute this code. After reviewing that code, you will probably choose to implement all of your future heat flow applications in HPF!

Hpf summary

In some ways, HPF has been good for FORTRAN 90. Companies such as IBM with its SP-1 needed to provide some high-level language for those users who didn't want to write message-passing codes. Because of this, IBM has invested a great deal of effort in implementing and optimizing HPF. Interestingly, much of this effort will directly benefit the ability to develop more sophisticated FORTRAN 90 compilers. The extensive data flow analysis required to minimize communications and manage the dynamic data structures will carry over into FORTRAN 90 compilers even without using the HPF directives.

Time will tell if the HPF data distribution directives will no longer be needed and compilers will be capable of performing sufficient analysis of straight FORTRAN 90 code to optimize data placement and movement.

In its current form, HPF is an excellent vehicle for expressing the highly data-parallel, grid-based applications. Its weaknesses are irregular communications and dynamic load balancing. A new effort to develop the next version of HPF is under- way to address some of these issues. Unfortunately, it is more difficult to solve these runtime problems while maintaining good performance across a wide range of architectures.

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, High performance computing. OpenStax CNX. Aug 25, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11136/1.5
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