<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
Provides background information on major US publishers of stereographs, including when they were founded and how many stereographs they produced. Provides context for resources in the Travelers in the Middle East Archive (TIMEA). Part 2 of a 4 part course called "History through the Stereoscope."

Researchers find it useful to know about the publishers who produced stereographs, since examining thepublication history of a stereograph can tell us much about how it was marketed, distributed, and consumed. Typically thephotographers who captured the images were anonymous. Although some photographers published and distributed stereographs themselves,several large publishers dominated the stereograph market. At the turn of the twentieth century, the major US stereograph publisherswere Underwood and Underwood, Keystone View Company, and H.C. White Company.

Companies used a variety of means to sell stereographs. Traveling sales agents sold stereographs, as did drugstores, novelty stores, and book stores, and catalogs. Stereographs were included as promotions with products or were given away bystores to customers who spent a certain amount of money. Church organizations gave Sunday school students Holy Land stereographs torecognize their attendance or achievement. To appeal to the education market, some publishers printed captions on the backs ofstereographs. Underwood began including legends in 1897, while Keystone did so around 1902 (Darrah 54-55). Legends could be aslong as 450 words long; often they were stories that were meant to educate or amuse children. These captions mediated viewers’experiences of the depicted scenes, telling them what they were seeing.

Underwood and underwood

Founded in 1882 in Kansas, USA, Underwood and Underwood first distributed and sold stereographs produced byothers, but they eventually hired their own photographers to take pictures around the world. In the early 1900s, Underwood broughtout the“boxed set,”typically a series of 100 cards that were selected to simulate a guided tour of a country. These sets wereaccompanied by a guide-book written by an expert that explained each scene. Underwood attempted to represent many facets of thecountry depicted, including views of people, places, industry, historic sites, and natural resources. In addition, customers couldpurchase a patented map system that pinpointed where each stereograph was shot and what was included in the image. Anadvertisement for Underwood’s boxed sets promoted their educational value:“…Tours are carefully selected by persons of wide experience and liberal education…. Schools and public libraries are turning more and more to the stereoscope to put students and readers intouch with the actual places of which they are studying”(qtd. by Evans). The boxed sets were so popular that the company producedtours of a number of countries, including Egypt, Ceylon, Japan, and India. By 1901, Underwood and Underwood produced 300,000stereoscopes a year and had established itself as the leading US stereograph firm. In 1920, as the market faded, the company stoppedproducing stereographs.

“Cairo, home of romance, N.W. from Saladin's citadel to Nile, Egypt.”Stereograph. NY: Underwood and Underwood, 1908. From TIMEA . (August 19, 2006). (External Link)

Keystone view company

In 1892, amateur photographer B.L. Singley distributed a series of stereoviews documenting a flood. From thissmall beginning, Singley built one of the leading stereograph firms of the era. Prior to 1897, Singley himself photographed all of theKeystone views, but in 1898 the firm hired professional photographers to travel the world taking pictures. Keystonedistinguished itself by pursuing the educational market, preparing teachers’manuals to accompany stereograph collections and appointing a prestigious editorial board to select and comment onstereographs. In a sense, stereographs were a predecessor to filmstrips and other forms of educational media, used to teachsubjects such as what the Stereoscopic Encyclopedia (1st edition 1906, 10th edition 1926) termed“racial geography, peoples of all lands”and“literary subjects and settings”(Darrah , World 50). Keystone, which published over 43,000 titles, stopped regularproduction of stereographs in 1939, but filled individual orders until 1970.

"A Mingling of Orient and Occident -- the Muski, Liveliest of the Real Streets of Cairo, Egypt" Stereograph.Meadville, PA: Keystone View Company, 1908. From TIMEA . (August 19, 2006). (External Link)

H.c. white company

Founded in 1899, H. C. White Company ultimately produced 12,800 titles. According to Darrah,“The company boasted that in seven years its chief photographer hadtraveled 140,000 miles and had visited all the continents”(World 51).

“View of Cairo, Egypt, from Stereograph”Postcard. Topeka, Kansas: Arthur Capper, 1901. From TIMEA . (August 19, 2006). (External Link)


Darrah, William. The World of Stereographs. Gettysburg, PA: Darrah, 1977.

Evans, Elaine A.“In The Sandals of Pharaoh:James Henry Breasted and the Stereoscope.”McClung Museum. 9 August 2006. (External Link)

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, History through the stereoscope: stereoscopy and virtual travel. OpenStax CNX. Oct 30, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10371/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'History through the stereoscope: stereoscopy and virtual travel' conversation and receive update notifications?