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Identity function

The dependent (y) and independent (x) variables have same value. Identity function is similar in concept to that of identity relation which consists of relation of an element of a set with itself. It is a linear function in which m=1 and c=0. Identity function form is represented as :

y = f(x) = x

Identity function

Identity function is a polynomial of degree 1.

The graph of identity function is a straight line bisecting first and third quadrants of coordinate system. Note that slope of straight line is 45°. It is clear from the graph that its domain and range both are real number set R.

Quadratic function

The general form of quadratic function is :

f(x) = a x 2 + b x + c ; a , b , c R ; a 0

We shall discuss quadratic function in detail in a separate module and hence discussion of this function is not taken up here.

Graph of polynomial function

Graph of polynomial is continuous and non-periodic. If degree is greater than 1, then it is a non-linear graph. Polynomial graphs are analyzed with the help of function properties like intercepts, slopes, concavity, and end behaviors. The may or may not intersect x-axis. This means that it may or may not have real roots. As maximum number of roots of a polynomial is at the most equal to the order of polynomial, we can deduce that graph can at the most intersect x-axis “n” times as maximum numbers of real roots are “n”.

The fact that graph of polynomial is continuous suggests two interesting inferences :

1: If there are two values of polynomial f(a) and f(b) such that f(a)f(b)<0, then there are at least 1 or an odd numbers of real roots between a and b. The condition f(a)f(b)<0 means that function values f(a) and f(b) lie on the opposite sides of x-axis. Since graph is continuous, it is bound to cross x-axis at least once or odd times. As such, there are at least 1 or odd numbers of real roots (as shown in the left figure down).

Roots of polynomial function

The numbers of x-intercepts depend on nature of product given by f(a)f(b).

2 : If there are two values of polynomial f(a) and f(b) such that f(a)f(b)>0, then there are either no real roots or there are even numbers of real roots between a and b. The condition f(a)f(b)>0 means that function values f(a) and f(b) are either both negative or both positive i.e. they lie on the same side of x - axis. Since graph is continuous, it may not cross at all or may cross x-axis even times (as shown in the right figure above). Clearly, there is either no real root or there are even numbers of real roots.

We shall study graphs of quadratic polynomials in a separate module. Further, other graphs will be discussed in appropriate context, while discussing a particular function. Here, we present two monomial quadratic graphs y = x 2 and y = x 3 . These graphs are important from the point of view of generalizing graphs of these particular polynomial structure. The nature of graphs y = x n , where “n” is even integer greater than equal to 2, is similar to the graph of y = x 2 . We should emphasize that the shape of curve simply generalizes the nature of graph – we need to draw them actually, if we want to draw graph of a particular monomial function. However, we shall find that these generalizations about nature of curve lets us know a great deal about the monomial polynomial. In particular, we can conclude that their domain and range are real number set R.

Even degree function

The nature of graphs of degree of positive even integer are similar to the graph shown.

Similarly, the nature of graphs y = x n , where “n” is odd number integer greater than 2, is similar to the graph of y = x 3 .

Odd degree function

The nature of graphs of degree of positive odd integer are similar to the graph of shown.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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Maciej
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s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Functions. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10464/1.64
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