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Organic reactions


  • Synthesis of some important esters.
  • Oxidation of a primary alcohol first to an aldehyde and then a carboxylic acid.
  • To saponify a typical vegetable oil.


You will be assessed on

  • detailed answers required in the lab report.
  • the correctness and thoroughness of your observations.


Esters are an important class of organic compounds commonly prepared from the esterification reaction of an organic acid with an alcohol in the presence of a strong mineral acid (usually H 2 SO 4 size 12{H rSub { size 8{2} } ital "SO" rSub { size 8{4} } } {} ). They are chiefly responsible for the pleasant aromas associated with various fruits, and as such are used in perfumes and flavorings. Some esters also have useful physiological effects. The best known example is the analgesic ("pain killing") and anti-pyretic ("fever reducing") drug acetylsalicylic acid, otherwise known by its trade name aspirin.

Liniments used for topical relief of sore muscles contain the ester methyl salicylate ("oil of wintergreen"), which is prepared from the reaction of methyl alcohol with the acid group of salicylic acid. Methyl salicylate acts as an analgesic and is absorbed through the skin; however, methyl salicylate is also a skin irritant (like many organic substances), which in this instance provides the beneficial side effect of the sensation of warming in the area of the skin where the liniment is applied.

Oxidation of a primary alcohol may yield either an aldehyde or a carboxylic acid, depending on the reaction conditions. For example, mild oxidation of ethanol produces acetaldehyde, which under more vigorous conditions may be further oxidised to acetic acid. The oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid is responsible for causing wine to turn sour, producing vinegar.

A number of oxidising agents may be used. Acidified sodium dichromate (VI) solution at room temperature will oxidise primary alcohols to aldehydes and secondary alcohols to ketones. At higher temperatures primary alcohols are oxides further to acids.


The dichromate solution turns from the orange color of the Cr 2 O 7 2 size 12{ ital "Cr" rSub { size 8{2} } O rSub { size 8{7} } rSup { size 8{2 - {}} } } {} (aq) to the blue color of the Cr 3 + size 12{ ital "Cr" rSup { size 8{3+{}} } } {} (aq). This color change is the basis for the "breathalyser test". The police can ask a motorist to exhale through a tube containing some orange crystals. If the crystals turn blue, it shows that the breath contains a considerable amount of ethanol vapor.

Soaps are produced by the reaction of metallic hydroxides with animal fats and vegetable oils. The major components of these fats and oils are triglycerides. Triglycerides are esters of the trihydroxy alcohol called glycerol and various long-chain fatty acids. Tristearin is a typical triglyceride. Upon reaction with sodium hydroxide, the ester bonds of tristearin are broken. The products of the reaction are the soap, sodium stearate, and glycerol. This type of reaction is called saponification (Greek: sapon, soap) and it is depicted below.



Soap is made commercially by heating beef tallow in large kettles with an excess of sodium hydroxide. When sodium chloride is added to this mixture (called the "saponified" mixture), the sodium salts of the fatty acids separate as a thick curd of crude soap. Glycerol is an important by-product of the reaction. It is recovered by evaporating the water layer. The crude soap is purified, and coloring agents and perfumes are added to meet market demands.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
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The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
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kinnecy Reply
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I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
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Commplementary angles
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
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Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Honors chemistry lab fall. OpenStax CNX. Nov 15, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10456/1.16
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