<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Organic reactions

Objectives

  • Synthesis of some important esters.
  • Oxidation of a primary alcohol first to an aldehyde and then a carboxylic acid.
  • To saponify a typical vegetable oil.

  Grading

You will be assessed on

  • detailed answers required in the lab report.
  • the correctness and thoroughness of your observations.

Introduction

Esters are an important class of organic compounds commonly prepared from the esterification reaction of an organic acid with an alcohol in the presence of a strong mineral acid (usually H 2 SO 4 size 12{H rSub { size 8{2} } ital "SO" rSub { size 8{4} } } {} ). They are chiefly responsible for the pleasant aromas associated with various fruits, and as such are used in perfumes and flavorings. Some esters also have useful physiological effects. The best known example is the analgesic ("pain killing") and anti-pyretic ("fever reducing") drug acetylsalicylic acid, otherwise known by its trade name aspirin.

Liniments used for topical relief of sore muscles contain the ester methyl salicylate ("oil of wintergreen"), which is prepared from the reaction of methyl alcohol with the acid group of salicylic acid. Methyl salicylate acts as an analgesic and is absorbed through the skin; however, methyl salicylate is also a skin irritant (like many organic substances), which in this instance provides the beneficial side effect of the sensation of warming in the area of the skin where the liniment is applied.

Oxidation of a primary alcohol may yield either an aldehyde or a carboxylic acid, depending on the reaction conditions. For example, mild oxidation of ethanol produces acetaldehyde, which under more vigorous conditions may be further oxidised to acetic acid. The oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid is responsible for causing wine to turn sour, producing vinegar.

A number of oxidising agents may be used. Acidified sodium dichromate (VI) solution at room temperature will oxidise primary alcohols to aldehydes and secondary alcohols to ketones. At higher temperatures primary alcohols are oxides further to acids.

 

The dichromate solution turns from the orange color of the Cr 2 O 7 2 size 12{ ital "Cr" rSub { size 8{2} } O rSub { size 8{7} } rSup { size 8{2 - {}} } } {} (aq) to the blue color of the Cr 3 + size 12{ ital "Cr" rSup { size 8{3+{}} } } {} (aq). This color change is the basis for the "breathalyser test". The police can ask a motorist to exhale through a tube containing some orange crystals. If the crystals turn blue, it shows that the breath contains a considerable amount of ethanol vapor.

Soaps are produced by the reaction of metallic hydroxides with animal fats and vegetable oils. The major components of these fats and oils are triglycerides. Triglycerides are esters of the trihydroxy alcohol called glycerol and various long-chain fatty acids. Tristearin is a typical triglyceride. Upon reaction with sodium hydroxide, the ester bonds of tristearin are broken. The products of the reaction are the soap, sodium stearate, and glycerol. This type of reaction is called saponification (Greek: sapon, soap) and it is depicted below.

 

 

Soap is made commercially by heating beef tallow in large kettles with an excess of sodium hydroxide. When sodium chloride is added to this mixture (called the "saponified" mixture), the sodium salts of the fatty acids separate as a thick curd of crude soap. Glycerol is an important by-product of the reaction. It is recovered by evaporating the water layer. The crude soap is purified, and coloring agents and perfumes are added to meet market demands.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Honors chemistry lab fall. OpenStax CNX. Nov 15, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10456/1.16
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Honors chemistry lab fall' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask