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Colligative Properties and Ice Cream


  • To record facile and fast data collection from the computer interface, ubiquitous in industry and, in this case, to calculate the molecular weight of the unknown solute using freezing point depression
  • To learn the definition of molality and the importance of molality in colligative property calculations
  • To learn to calculate the molality of a solution
  • To measure the freezing point depression caused when adding antifreeze to tert-butanol
  • To calculate the molecular weight of the unknown solute using freezing point depression


You will be determined according to the following:

  • Pre-lab (10%)
  • Lab Report Form (80%) – including temperature plots
  • TA evaluation of lab procedure (10%)


Although colligative properties involve solutions, they do not depend on the interactions between the solvent and the solute molecules but rather on the number of solute particles dissolved in solution. Colligative properties include vapor pressure lowering, osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, and freezing point depression. In this experiment you will explore freezing point depression using a solution of ethylene glycol in tert-butanol. You will then use freezing point depression to calculate the molar mass of an unknown solute that is dissolved in tert-butanol.

Ethylene glycol, (CH2OH)2 the major component of antifreeze, is a large organic molecule that dissolves easily in water. The structure of ethylene glycol is shown in Figure 1.

Antifreeze keeps the water in a car's radiator from freezing because the ethylene glycol molecules get in the way when water tries to crystallize into ice. It is more difficult for the ice crystals to form, due to the fact that the water must be at a lower kinetic energy. Therefore, the water freezes at a lower temperature than if the glycol molecules were not present. The effect of the ethylene glycol molecules present in a solutioncan be quantified by the following equation:

ΔT = iKfm Equation 1

where Δ T = Tpure - Tsolution, the difference between the freezing temperature of the pure solute and the freezing temperature of the solution. Kf is the freezing point depression constant of the solvent, having units of °C/m, and m is concentration of the solution using units of molality. This equation reflects the fact that a more concentrated solution results in a greater change in freezing temperature.

Most of the previous work that we have done with solutions probably has involved units of molarity, or moles per liter of solution. Freezing point depression calculations (as well as those for boiling point elevation) use molality, or moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. By definition, a freezing point depression or boiling point elevation involves a change in temperature. When the temperature of a solution changes, its volume also changes. Since molarity depends on the volume of the solution, a change in temperature will change the solution's molarity. Molality depends on the mass of the solvent, and this does not change with temperature.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Akash Reply
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
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Sanket Reply
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Damian Reply
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abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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I'm interested in nanotube
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Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
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silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
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Source:  OpenStax, General chemistry lab spring. OpenStax CNX. Apr 03, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10506/1.56
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