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Arts and culture

Grade 9

Expression and communication

Module 5

How technology has influenced the distribution of music

MUSIC

Activity 1

To explain how technology has influenced the distribution of music

  • While listening to Eine Kleine Nachtmusik imagine the following: You are living in Europe in the 18th century. The wonder child Mozart’s (13) music is creating a stir. He composes and performs his own work. Would it be possible for you to listen to his music? If so, how would you do it?
  • Compare it to the current situation. Name the technological inventions that make it possible to listen to any music today.

How has music been distributed since the beginning of the 20th century?

The influence of technology on the development of instruments

  • Since the very first musical instrument there has been an important connection between music and technology. Listen to the following extracts to experience the difference in sound:
  • Harpsichord music from the 17th century (Baroque Period) by JS BACH
  • Piano music by F CHOPIN

The piano developed from the harpsichord. Of the most important technological developments with regard to the piano is that the instrument could produce crescendo and diminuendo (gradually louder and softer) and sustain notes by using the damper pedal (the pedal to the right).

  • Poème Électronique by EDGAR VARÈSE

Since 1950 electronic instruments, especially amplified instruments like the electrical guitar and piano have become more prominent. With the development of electronic and computer technology the composer can be both composer and performer. Recordings are made in studios that have recorders, synthesizers, computers and other equipment to mix and filter sounds. This enables the composer to make use of a very wide spectrum of sound.

  • Try to recognise the following:

Bells

Sirens

Silence

Machine noises

Voices

Animal sounds

Electronic sounds

Activity 2 (group)

To debate the following quotation:

  • One of the most experimental classical composers of the 20th century is without a doubt John Cage. His famous (or is it notorious?) composition is 4’33” (1952).

Let’s perform this composition!

  • One learner is responsible for the tape recorder.
  • One learner must time the performance – the recording must be exactly 4’33”.
  • One learner seats himself in front of a piano (or other musical instrument) without playing! He is the performer.
  • The rest of the learners form the audience!
  • The educator is the conductor who shows exactly when to begin and when to stop.

Good: 1.....2......3......begin!

1 second, 2 seconds_________4 minutes 30 seconds, 4 minutes 31 seconds,4 minutes 32 seconds, 4 minutes 33 seconds STOP!

Now listen to the recording!

No music? Only sounds!

What is the aim of this composition?

According to the composer he tries to arrange the composition means in such a way that he doesn’t have any idea of what is going to happen! His purpose is to eliminate purpose. He wants people to learn to listen; not only to music, but to everyday sounds as well.

The unintentional sounds that the audience might produce are the music! Cage explains: “I try to arrange my composing means so that I will not have any knowledge of what might happen. My purpose is to eliminate purpose. The purpose would be achieved if people learned to listen.” This type of music is beneficial for better communication between composer and listener.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
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Maciej
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Abigail
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Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
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Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Arts and culture grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11067/1.1
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