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Natural sciences

Grade 9

The earth, galaxies and space programmes

Module 12

The formation of the universe

At the start of the universe matter did not exist.

According to scientists there was originally only a little ball smaller than an atom of this explosion that became as large as a soccer ball when it started cooling down from infinitely hot to ten billion °C. We don’t know what was in the universe before that.

The explanation that the exceedingly hot spaces and a mixture of particles and forces exploded and started expanding, and are still expanding! The theory is that the galaxies are continuing to move apart. Scientists can still detect the microwaves of the afterglow of the explosion.

This is known as the BIG BANG theory. Only one of the four forces in the universe was in operation, namely the super force - it lasted for only a trillionth of a trillionth of a second!

Cosmologists (scientists that study the universe (cosmos)) have a difficult task, as they have nothing against which to test or compare their ideas. That’s why the “Big Bang” theory came into being. It is a model that they created to explain all phenomena and aspects of this explosion. According to scientists the universe is still expanding.

A scientist by the name of Edward Hubble recorded this movement of galaxies for the first time in the 1920s. He determined that the speed of a galaxy is directly proportional to its distance from us. This is known as Hubble’s Law.

Activity: MAKE A MODEL

  • Take an uninflated balloon and paste stars all over its surface. Each star represents a galaxy. Paste a round sticker to represent the Milky Way.
  • Now inflate the balloon – note that the galaxies and the Milky Way move further and further apart.

A series of processes in which extreme heat and pressure played a role, led to the formation of matter and elements.

  • Hydrogen was formed in the first moments of the formation of the universe after a large number of quarks (Matter: Gr. 8) had been compressed.
  • The universe with all its stars and clouds of matter is comprised almost solely of helium and hydrogen, the smallest and lightest of all elements (as you learnt in Gr. 8).
  • These elements were formed when the quarks blended with the “matter mixture”, resulting in very high pressure and high temperatures.
  • Quarks are so small that 10 billion billion of them next to one another would only stretch one metre.
  • Larger atoms such as beryllium were formed when large numbers of helium atoms were joined together in nuclear reactions within stars.
  • Iron – an important element in the earth’s crust – was formed deep inside stars when very high temperatures and pressure compressed carbon atoms.All matter in the universe is held together by FOUR FORCES:
  • Gravity
  • Electromagnetic forces
  • Strong nuclear forces
  • Weak nuclear forces

Antimatter also exists – it is like a mirror image of matter and should the two groups come together, they would cancel each other out!!!!! Fortunately there is very little antimatter in space.

When Time Began

  • In the beginning, when there was no universe yet, there was also no time. The theory is that it all started as follows:

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11069/1.1
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