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Natural sciences

Grade 9

The earth, galaxies and space programmes

Module 12

The formation of the universe

At the start of the universe matter did not exist.

According to scientists there was originally only a little ball smaller than an atom of this explosion that became as large as a soccer ball when it started cooling down from infinitely hot to ten billion °C. We don’t know what was in the universe before that.

The explanation that the exceedingly hot spaces and a mixture of particles and forces exploded and started expanding, and are still expanding! The theory is that the galaxies are continuing to move apart. Scientists can still detect the microwaves of the afterglow of the explosion.

This is known as the BIG BANG theory. Only one of the four forces in the universe was in operation, namely the super force - it lasted for only a trillionth of a trillionth of a second!

Cosmologists (scientists that study the universe (cosmos)) have a difficult task, as they have nothing against which to test or compare their ideas. That’s why the “Big Bang” theory came into being. It is a model that they created to explain all phenomena and aspects of this explosion. According to scientists the universe is still expanding.

A scientist by the name of Edward Hubble recorded this movement of galaxies for the first time in the 1920s. He determined that the speed of a galaxy is directly proportional to its distance from us. This is known as Hubble’s Law.

Activity: MAKE A MODEL

  • Take an uninflated balloon and paste stars all over its surface. Each star represents a galaxy. Paste a round sticker to represent the Milky Way.
  • Now inflate the balloon – note that the galaxies and the Milky Way move further and further apart.

A series of processes in which extreme heat and pressure played a role, led to the formation of matter and elements.

  • Hydrogen was formed in the first moments of the formation of the universe after a large number of quarks (Matter: Gr. 8) had been compressed.
  • The universe with all its stars and clouds of matter is comprised almost solely of helium and hydrogen, the smallest and lightest of all elements (as you learnt in Gr. 8).
  • These elements were formed when the quarks blended with the “matter mixture”, resulting in very high pressure and high temperatures.
  • Quarks are so small that 10 billion billion of them next to one another would only stretch one metre.
  • Larger atoms such as beryllium were formed when large numbers of helium atoms were joined together in nuclear reactions within stars.
  • Iron – an important element in the earth’s crust – was formed deep inside stars when very high temperatures and pressure compressed carbon atoms.All matter in the universe is held together by FOUR FORCES:
  • Gravity
  • Electromagnetic forces
  • Strong nuclear forces
  • Weak nuclear forces

Antimatter also exists – it is like a mirror image of matter and should the two groups come together, they would cancel each other out!!!!! Fortunately there is very little antimatter in space.

When Time Began

  • In the beginning, when there was no universe yet, there was also no time. The theory is that it all started as follows:

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11069/1.1
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