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Natural sciences

Grade 9

The earth, galaxies and space programmes

Module 12

The formation of the universe

At the start of the universe matter did not exist.

According to scientists there was originally only a little ball smaller than an atom of this explosion that became as large as a soccer ball when it started cooling down from infinitely hot to ten billion °C. We don’t know what was in the universe before that.

The explanation that the exceedingly hot spaces and a mixture of particles and forces exploded and started expanding, and are still expanding! The theory is that the galaxies are continuing to move apart. Scientists can still detect the microwaves of the afterglow of the explosion.

This is known as the BIG BANG theory. Only one of the four forces in the universe was in operation, namely the super force - it lasted for only a trillionth of a trillionth of a second!

Cosmologists (scientists that study the universe (cosmos)) have a difficult task, as they have nothing against which to test or compare their ideas. That’s why the “Big Bang” theory came into being. It is a model that they created to explain all phenomena and aspects of this explosion. According to scientists the universe is still expanding.

A scientist by the name of Edward Hubble recorded this movement of galaxies for the first time in the 1920s. He determined that the speed of a galaxy is directly proportional to its distance from us. This is known as Hubble’s Law.

Activity: MAKE A MODEL

  • Take an uninflated balloon and paste stars all over its surface. Each star represents a galaxy. Paste a round sticker to represent the Milky Way.
  • Now inflate the balloon – note that the galaxies and the Milky Way move further and further apart.

A series of processes in which extreme heat and pressure played a role, led to the formation of matter and elements.

  • Hydrogen was formed in the first moments of the formation of the universe after a large number of quarks (Matter: Gr. 8) had been compressed.
  • The universe with all its stars and clouds of matter is comprised almost solely of helium and hydrogen, the smallest and lightest of all elements (as you learnt in Gr. 8).
  • These elements were formed when the quarks blended with the “matter mixture”, resulting in very high pressure and high temperatures.
  • Quarks are so small that 10 billion billion of them next to one another would only stretch one metre.
  • Larger atoms such as beryllium were formed when large numbers of helium atoms were joined together in nuclear reactions within stars.
  • Iron – an important element in the earth’s crust – was formed deep inside stars when very high temperatures and pressure compressed carbon atoms.All matter in the universe is held together by FOUR FORCES:
  • Gravity
  • Electromagnetic forces
  • Strong nuclear forces
  • Weak nuclear forces

Antimatter also exists – it is like a mirror image of matter and should the two groups come together, they would cancel each other out!!!!! Fortunately there is very little antimatter in space.

When Time Began

  • In the beginning, when there was no universe yet, there was also no time. The theory is that it all started as follows:

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11069/1.1
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