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Social sciences

Grade 8

Geography: settlements

Module 4


1. The migration of people to new surroundings

You have already become acquainted with the migration of people from the countryside to the city. Migration, however, does not only take place from rural to urban areas. People move from one urban area to another, and also from one country to another.

Migration from the place where you have been living for many years, e.g. from Cape Town to a new city, e.g. London, is known as EMIGRATION .

Migration to a place where you have found a new home, is called IMMIGRATION. e.g. to London.

Migration is a permanent relocation to a new environment or place.

R easons for migration

There are various reasons why people move from one place the other. These factors can usually be divided into two categories, namely:

Push factors – factors that encourage people to leave a specific area.

Pull factors – factors that entice people to settle in a specific area.

Activity 1:

To obtain information about migration

[lo 1.2]

Collect information about people who migrate to other countries and answer the questions that follow:

1. What circumstances in South Africa do you think made people decide to take such a step?

2. What influence will this tendency have on the South African economy if highly schooled workers are to leave the country in large numbers?

2. Factors that promote migration

2.1 Push factors

Push factors play an important role as a reason for migration. Push factors can mainly be divided into three categories:

a) Political factors: political factors play a role where people immigrate due to pressure or persecution experienced in their land of birth. During the years of Apartheid many black South Africans left the country and went to live elsewhere, e.g. in England and Europe due to political pressure and persecution that they suffered here, as well as the lack of educational opportunities.

b) Economic factors: economic factors play a role when the economic system of a country is not favourable, causing people to leave for another country where they can enjoy a better life. Many people have moved to the USA and England where better working conditions are available.

c) Environmental factors: people also leave their homes because of an unfavourable physical environment. Too much or too little water may be a serious hazard for the environment. People are forced to move because they live on the flood plains of a river. During a flood their properties and lives are threatened by the water masses.

Activity 2:

To communicate personal experiences in writing

[lo 1.5]

On your own

You are a migrant worker who helps to harvest fruit in the Cape. You work on as farm near Worcester. Write a letter to your family living in Kimberley, describing the difficult living and working conditions you experience.

P olitical push factors

People are often obliged to leave their country due to persecution or threats to their lives because of their political ideas. These refugees must then find themselves

another place to live. They cannot return to their country, because their lives are in danger.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11036/1.1
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