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Technology

Grade 8

Structures

Module 8

Food processing and utensils

Food Processing

ACTIVITY 1:

To be able to describe the term processing in terms of the technological process.

Introduction

The term processing covers a wide area. It has to do with the processing of materials and/or products into another final form or product. It entails the processing of anything, e.g. the processing of wheat into flour and then into bread, the processing of wood into furniture and the processing of material into clothing. In this module we will focus on food. In grade 9 we will focus on resistant materials (wood, metal, plastic and paper).

You will have the opportunity to plan and construct a food stall for the coming World Fair. The stall must represent a specific country and produce and sell the fast foods of that country. Before you can start, it is important that you obtain more information about kitchen utensils, safety, hygiene, first aid, measurement and the various food groups.

1.1 Define the term processing .

1.2 Give two examples of processing done in your town/area and give a brief description of each.

1.3 Use one of the examples in 1.2 and now describe the term processing in terms of the technological process. Use the terms design, make . . . . .

LO 1.5 LO 2.2

ACTIVITY 2:

To be able to describe the utensils generally used in food processing, as well as the function of each.

  • During the processing of food you will require a variety of utensils. It is important for you to know what these are and how to use them with confidence for the right purpose.
  • Utensils can be divided into five main groups according to the function they perform. These main groups are:
  • Measuring utensils
  • Mixing utensils
  • Cooking utensils
  • Baking and frying utensils
  • VariousWrite down the name of the utensils which belong to each of the following five groups. Also write down the function of each utensil.
  • Group: MEASURING UTENSILS
  • Group: MIXING UTENSILS
  • Group: COOKING UTENSILS
  • Group: BAKING AND FRYING UTENSILS
  • Group: VARIOUS
LO 1.10

Assessment

Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND SKILLS The learner will be able to apply technological processes and skills ethically and responsibly using appropriate information and communication technology.
This is demonstrated when the learner:
investigates:1.1 investigates the background context, the nature of the need, the environmental situation, and the people concerned when given a problem, need or opportunity set in a nationally relevant context;
1.3 develops and performs practical tests in the technological areas (Structures, Processing, and Systems and Control);
1.4 uses appropriate technologies and methods to:
  • collect relevant data from different sources and resources;
  • extract relevant data;
  • make meaningful summaries;use information to justify and support decisions and ideas;
designs:1.5 writes or communicates a short and clear statement or a design brief in response to a given identified situation for the development of a product or system;
1.6 lists product and design specifications and constraints for a solution to an identified or given problem, need or opportunity based on most of the design key words listed below:
    • people: age target market;
  • purpose: function;
  • appearance: colour, shape;
  • environment: where will product be used;
  • safety: for users;
  • cost: cost of materials;
1.7 generates several alternative solutions and writes notes, ideas that show some links to the design brief and specifications;
makes:1.9 develops a plan for making that outlines all of the following:
  • resources needed;
  • sketches showing the necessary dimensions or quantities;
  • all steps necessary to making the product;
1.10 chooses and uses appropriate tools and materials to make products by measuring, marking, cutting or separating, shaping or forming, joining or combining, and finishing different materials accurately using appropriate techniques;
1.12 uses safe working practices and shows awareness of efficient ways of using materials and tools;
evaluates: 1.13 tests and evaluates the products or systems with objectivity, based on objective criteria linked to the design brief, specifications and constraints, and suggests sensible improvements or modifications;
communicates: 1.15 presents ideas using two-dimensional or three dimensional sketches, circuit diagrams or systems diagrams that include all of the following features:
  • use of SA drawing conventions (e.g. dimension lines, labelling, line types, symbols);
  • notes to clarify and communicate design features and reasoning; enhancement of significant sketches like final solution drawings.
LO 2
TECHNOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING The learner will be able to understand and apply relevant technological knowledge ethically and responsibly.
This is demonstrated when the learner:
structures:2.1 demonstrate knowledge and understanding of frame structures:
  • the use and application of basic structural components (columns, beams, arches, buttresses, struts, stays, guys, ties);
  • reinforcing techniques for frame structures (triangulation, webs and fillets, orientation and cross-sectional area and members);
  • how frame structures can be made strong (e.g. relationship between the size and the shape of the base, the centre of gravity and stability;
processing:2.2 demonstrates a knowledge and understanding of how materials can be processed to change or improve their properties by adapting them to suit particular purposes:
  • to withstand forces (tension, compression, bending, torsion, shear);
  • to increase strengths or life-span;
  • how specific properties suitable for packaging can be achieved.

Memorandum

ACTIVITY 1

Introduction:

  • The module deals with food processing. Seeing that only a few schools have the necessary facilities to cook food, a fast-food dish has been chosen as learners can prepare it at home and put it together in the classroom. It would be very helpful if a microwave oven were available during the production process. Learners must be encouraged to develop sound business principles during the course of this module. It is for this reason that entrepreneurship is emphasized. The module could also be linked to possible market days.

1.1 Processing can involve any material or product that undergoes a process in order to form a new product. That entails the processing, combining, colouring, packaging, etc. of materials and products.

1.2 Any example that is distinctive of your environment, e.g. grapes to wine, wheat to bread, etc. can be used.

ACTIVITY 2

  • Use the pictures for this activity. The pictures have been jumbled and must be organized in the tables that follow them, as indicated in this memorandum.
  • The function of each piece of equipment must also be written down.

Group 1: Measuring Utensils

Utensil(s) Function
1. Measuring spoons To measure small amounts of liquids or dry ingredients.
2. Measuring cup To measure small amounts of dry ingredients.
3. Measuring jug To measure liquids and dry ingredients.
4. Scales To measure dry and solid ingredients.

Group 2: Mixing Utensils

1. Mixing-bowl To mix cake mixtures and mixtures for scones, bread or biscuits.
2. Wooden spoon To stir or beat starch or milk mixtures; to rub ingredients through a sieve.
3. Spatula To fold stiffly beaten egg whites into a mixture; to apply icing; to turn flapjacks.
4. Dough scraper To scrape mixtures out of bowls, dishes and saucepans so that there is no wastage; to scrape leftovers out of plates and dishes before washing the dishes.
5. Balloon whisk To beat (whisk) eggs and other liquid mixtures.

Group 3: Cooking Utensils

1. Saucepan To cook, steam or simmer food; to make sauces or gravies; to cook jam.
2. Double boiler To cook food by steaming it, e.g. egg custard, rice or fish.

Group 4: Baking- and Grilling Utensils

1. Baking tray To bake scones and biscuits.
2. Bread and cake tins To bake cakes and bread.

Group 5: Sundries

1. Sieve To sieve flour and dry ingredients.
2. Colander To drain rice and vegetables, to wash lettuce and other vegetables.
3. Grater To grate vegetables, cheese, nuts, orange peel.
4. Kettle To boil water.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Technology grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 13, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11052/1.1
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