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Social sciences: geography

Grade 7

Natural hazards

Module 5

Volcanoes

1. The occurrence and causes of volcanoes

Molten rock below the earth’s crust is called magma. When it flows to the surface it is called lava. Why lava flows to the surface is not clear enough for people to agree on the reasons for eruptions and no one has been able to investigate the heart of the earth to find out what happens there.

We do know, however, that the weight of the solid crust of the earth is so great that the fluid rock is forced upwards at weak places in the earth’s crust. This molten rock is extremely hot, with temperatures of between 800 and 1 500 C.

If you shake a can of cooldrink, the gas will propel the cooldrink out of the can with great force when you open the can. This is what happens in the case of volcanoes – the molten rock erupts through weak places in the earth’s crust and lava, rocks and ash are propelled into the air.

Then the lava cools down and solidifies to form new rocks known as igneous rock.

Some volcanoes produce very fluid lava that flows over a large area before solidifying. Thin plates of igneous rock are formed in this case. Other volcanoes build up domes because the lava is less fluid and does not flow far from the core.

A very forceful explosion can force out the whole of the dome and cause a large open hole called a caldera, or crater. There are roughly 450 active volcanoes worldwide. Fortunately, they do not erupt continuously and are therefore referred to as dormant volcanoes.

Where do most volcanoes occur?

Study figure 4.

There are about 5 000 volcanoes. They only occur in particular places. These places are situated above the margins of the large plates of the earth’s crust. The movement of these plates lead to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.

Quake areasVolcanic areas

Figure 4

The distribution of the main volcanic and earthquake areas of the earth

Which volcanoes have caused the greatest destruction?

The most destructive volcano of all time was Krakatoa, in Indonesia. When it erupted in 1883, more than 36 000 people died. The bang of the explosion was heard 5 000 km away and the pollution that resulted from the eruption was visible in copper-coloured sunsets across the earth for years.

Another well-known example of the destructive force of a volcano comes from the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, which buried the city of Pompeii in the Bay of Naples under volcanic rocks and ashes in 79 AD.

2. The effect (consequences) of volcanoes on people’s lives and their socio-economic activities

Thousands of lights glitter in the dark dome of the night. From a distance the explosions that hurtle glowing rocks and streams of fire into the night look like an expansive display of fireworks. Rocks and ashes flung up high pollute the air.

A river of red, smoking lava slithers over the edge of the crater – the warm blood of the living earth, as someone has strikingly described it.

It may flow through fertile valleys for kilometres, devouring every blade of grass, even trees, along its way. Houses crumble and cities are buried under the glowing, driven mass. People who have survived, scramble down the mountainside; warm ash raining down on them. Suffocating sulphurous gases and a rain of ashes smother other people to death.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11021/1.1
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