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English first additional language

Grade 7

Module 3

Comprehension

1. THE ORIGIN OF THE CAT

(a) Read the following extract carefully.

The earliest records of domestic cats are written and painted on the walls of the tombs of the Pharaohs of Egypt and are over 4 000 years old. Sleek, shorthaired, long-legged cats were etched side-by-side with figures of Egyptian men working in the fields.

In Egypt the cat was worshipped as a sacred animal and in the event of fire, the cat was rescued first! We are not sure how the cat came to be so high up in the divine order of things of the Egyptians, but it is thought that these people were the first to appreciate the cat's skilful ability to get rid of the pests, such as rats and mice, which infested the fields and cities.

When cats died, they were treated with great respect and were often mummified or embalmed. This involved being wrapped in tight bandages and buried in miniature coffins which were decorated with gold.

If one killed a cat in Egypt, the penalty was death and many an unsuspecting foreigner met his end in this way.

It was illegal to remove a cat from Egypt, but these gods were gradually smuggled out to the East and to Europe. They were very popular in countries such as Japan, Greece and Rome, and because they were so very precious, they were often kept on leads. They were possessed by many princes and noblemen.

It was only in the Middle Ages that the cat fell from its pedestal, rather awkwardly and without the grace that it was accustomed to. There were groups of people in Germany who started to use the cat for evil purposes. The Church believed the cat-worshippers to be witches and many people were tortured for witchcraft. There was mass hysteria among the ordinary people who then started to link cats with the devil.

But fortunately the panic ended and the common cat once again won its way into the hearts of people all over the world. The cats were raised to their rightful position and were owned by scientists, politicians and clergymen.

So, don't be surprised if, some day, you notice your cat looking down at you, perfect and proud. He is most probably dreaming about days gone by when felines in Egypt were put first and when a cat could look at a king.

There are many proverbs about cats that probably originated from ancient Egyptian times. Have you heard the following: a cat may look at a king; an old cat knows fresh milk; a cat has nine lives; there are more ways of killing a cat than choking her with cream?

(b) Answer the following questions in full sentences, unless stated otherwise.

(i) How do we know that the Egyptians had domestic cats?

(ii) Why was the cat the first to be rescued in the event of a fire?

(iii) For what supposed reason did the Egyptians worship cats?

(iv) How did the Egyptians show their respect for a cat after its death?

(v) Why were many foreigners to Egypt put to death?

(vi) We are told that the cat "fell from its pedestal" during the Middle Ages. What does this mean?

(vii) Why did many ordinary people in Germany begin to associate cats with the devil?

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, English first additional language grade 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11019/1.1
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