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Geography

Grade 5

Resources

Module 18

Natural resources: minerals

Minerals as a natural resource

South Africa has large deposits of minerals like gold, iron, coal, platinum and diamonds. The map on the next page shows that these South African minerals are concentrated in the north-eastern part of the country. Coal and gold make up a large proportion of our country's mineral wealth.

Minerals in South Africa

Some of these minerals are mined at the surface (diamonds), while others are mined deep below the surface under extremely dangerous conditions.

Iron, which is a basic component in the production of steel, is less abundant. Melting iron ore and other minerals together in large furnaces manufacture steel. Flat steel plates are manufactured during this process. Later on, these steel plates are used to manufacture other products. Steel is a very important component of the modern manufacturing process. Just consider the car that was referred to earlier in the module. Without steel, there would be no motor vehicle production line.

There are two methods of mining:

  • open mining;
  • tunnel mining.

Minerals like iron, copper, asbestos and diamonds are sometimes mined from open cast mines. These simply are large open holes in the earth that are dug in such a way that a spiralling road leading to the deepest part of the mine is formed. This means that vehicles that transport ore and materials to the places where they are processed can be driven to every part of the mine.

When minerals are found deep under the ground, a shaft has to be built. Mine headgear is erected and a deep hole is drilled into the earth. Shaft diggers (sinkers) dig side passages and tunnels from this hole (shaft). This enables the miners to reach the reefs or veins containing the minerals. These passages and tunnels are situated on different levels.

The minerals are blasted loose with dynamite and are then dug out. The “gravel” is loaded into iron buckets (cocopans), which run along a rail like a train and are hoisted to the surface of the earth in lifts for the minerals to be processed. Excess rock is dumped on mine dumps and the watery remains are taken to sludge dams .

Activity:

To supply a diagram with captions

[lo 1.1]

  • Consult the preceding paragraphs and supply this illustration of a cross-section of a shaft mine with the necessary captions.

Assessment

LO 1

GEOGRAPHICAL ENQUIRY

The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.

We know this when the learner:

1.1 with guidance, selects and uses sources of useful geographical information [finds sources];

1.2 distinguishes between facts and opinions [works with sources];

1.3 categorises information [works with sources];

1.4 uses an index to find places on global atlas maps [works with sources];

1.6 identifies and explores possible solutions to problems [answers the question];

1.7 demonstrates knowledge and under-standing of the issue through projects, discussion, debate and charts [communicates the answer].

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
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Maciej
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s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
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s.
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for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Cied
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I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
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Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
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AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
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AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
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Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
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after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
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silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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Source:  OpenStax, Social sciences: geography grade 5. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10986/1.2
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