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Sosiale wetenskappe: aardrykskunde

Graad 9

Sosiale en omgewingskonflik in suid-afrika

Module 9

Sosiale en omgewingskonflik

1. Politieke agtergrond

Na die vrylating van Nelson Mandela in 1990, het geweld in Suid-Afrika toegeneem, terwyl baie verwag het dat dit die begin sou wees van ‘n vreedsamer samelewing.

Die oorsaak kan onder andere gesoek word in die wisselwerking tussen die omgewingstekorte en sosiale onrus in Suid-Afrika oor die afgelope dekades. Suid-Afrika het ernstige omgewingsprobleme, maar hulle is die afgelope tyd oorskadu deur die negatiewe sosiale uitwerking van apartheid, weerstand teen minderheidsregering en die poging om ‘n post-apartheid politieke bestel tot stand te bring. Die oorgang na ‘n volle demokrasie het goed verloop, maar die apartheidsbestel het ‘n problematiese ekologiese erfenis nagelaat wat politieke, sosiale en ekonomiese toestande vir dekades lank gaan beïnvloed. Die vooruitsigte vir ‘n welvarende, vreedsame en demokratiese Suid-Afrika lyk trouens minder rooskleurig as die moontlike invloed wat ons omgewingstekorte op sosiale stabiliteit kan hê, reg verstaan word.

Omgewingsskaarste het binne die konteks van apartheid bygedra tot:

  • verlaagde landbouproduktiwiteit in die voormalige tuislande;
  • migrasies na en binne-in stedelike gebiede; en
  • die agteruitgang van die plaaslike stedelike omgewing.

2. Suid-Afrika: verby apartheid

Die onteiening van die oorspronklike inwoners van Suid-Afrika van hul land, het reeds met die Britse koloniale bewind begin, maar rassesegregasie is deur die Nasionale Party se oorwinning in 1948 en hul toepassing van apartheid, verskans. Apartheid het 87% van die land aan die blankes besorg terwyl die swartes, ongeveer 75% van die bevolking, in tuislande geleef het wat omtrent 13 % van die land beslaan het.

Die swart bevolking in hierdie gebiede het hulself gehandhaaf deur middel van landbou, plaaslike diensindustrieë en trekarbeid in myne en nywerhede wat in die besit van blankes was.

Vanaf 1960 tot 1980 het die Regering 1,75 miljoen mense wat hulself na die kansellering van arbeid-huurderkontrakte, in stedelike plakkerskampe en plattelandse dorpies neergelaat het, na die tuislande gedwing. Dit het bygedra tot:

  • kwasi-stedelike gemeenskappe op die grense van die tuislande;
  • meer mense wat in enkel-geslagkoshuise naby nywerhede gewoon het;
  • ‘n waarneembare apartheidsopset wat vandag nog bestaan: natuurlike omgewingseienskappe soos riviere, klowe en rante, of mensgemaakte versperrings soos industriële gebiede, nywerheidsgordels en spoorlyne skei die verskillende rassegroepe van mekaar;
  • ‘n ongelyke verdeling van stedelike grond, met die swartes wat te min grond gekry het om hulle almal te huisves en die grond ook swakker geposisioneer (ver van die stadsentrum af, naby industriële gebiede) met ‘n ontoereikende infrastruktuur (swak rioolstelsels, water- en elektrisiteitsvoorsiening).

Die gevolg van hierdie ontwikkeling is dat die stedelike swartbevolking toenemend op die plaaslike omgewing aangewese geraak het vir hulle dag-tot-dag behoeftes en dat die omgewings vinnig agteruit gegaan het.

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11054/1.1
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