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Sosiale wetenskappe: geskiedenis

Graad 9

Sa vanaf 1948 tot 2000: nasionalisme

Module 7

Die soweto opstand

Die Soweto Opstand [LU 1, 2, 3]

‘Vanaf die oomblik van die verkiesing van die Nasionaliste het ons geweet ons land sou voortaan ’n plek van spanning en oproer wees.’

Woorde van Nelson Mandela

BRON A: Dringende Telegramme word deur Regerings Amptenare gestuur

Op 25 Mei 1976 het Fred van Wyk, die direkteur van die Instituut van Rasseverhoudings ’n dringende telegram aan die Progressiewe Federale Party-lid, Renè de Villiers, met die volgende gestuur: ‘Baie bekommerd Afrikaans medium geskil swart skole.’ ‘Situasie in Soweto baie ernstig.’ ‘Kan jy die saak met Minister bespreek…?’

Op 11 Junie het van Wyk weer ’n telegram aan De Villiers gestuur, wat weer op sy beurt met Dr Treurnicht gepraat het. Dr Treurnicht, die Minister, het ontken dat die dispuut uitgebrei het. Hy het De Villiers verseker dat die probleem bevredigend opgelos sou word.

Vyf dae later, het die storm losgebars …

Op 13 Junie het afgevaardigdes van sekondêre skole in Soweto ’n aksiekomitee gekies om ’n protesoptog deur die woonbuurt te lei. Dit sou gevolg word deur ’n massabyeenkoms in die Orlando Sokkerstadion.

Diè optog is beplan vir Woensdag 16 Junie teen 7:00 vm. Teen 6:00 was honderde leerlinge alreeds by verskeie versamelpunte saamgetrek. Die stemming van die skare was gemoedelik. Slagspreuke op banier het die volgende gelei: “Weg met Afrikaans” , “Bantoe Onderwys – hel toe daarmee” en “Afrikaans is ’n Stamtaal” .

Uitreksel uit: READER’S DIGEST ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF SOUTH AFRICA )

BRON B: STUDENTE PAMFLET

’n OPROEP AAN ALMAL

DIS NOU DIE TYD OM ’n AKTIEWE ROL IN DIE STRY VIR MENSWAARDIGHEID TE SPEELSTAAN OP EN VEG TEEN ONREGVERDIGE STELSELONS DIE STUDENTE VAN DIE KAAPSE SKIEREILAND VERKLAAR DAT:

  • ons identifiseer met die stryd vir ’n gemeenskap met basiese menseregte.
  • ons verlang vrye en gelyke opvoeding vir almal.
  • ons verdoem alle organisasies wat menslike vooruitgang vertraag.
  • gee werkers gelyke lone en werk volgens meriete.
  • stop instromingsbeheer.STUDENTE: JULLE HET ’n BELANGRIKE ROL OM IN DIE VERANDERING TE SPEEL. ALLE ONDERDRUKTES MOET NOU OPSTAAN EN GESIEN WORD. VERENIG NOU.BRON CEEN ONVERGEETLIKE BEELD

Sam Nzima, 63, was fotojoernalis vir die The World , nuusblad, en het een van die mees dramatiese foto’s van ons tye geneem. Twee-en-twintig jaar later kyk hy terug na sy ervaring.

Die dag voor 16 Junie 1976 het ons nuusredateur, Percy Qoboza gesê dat Stu­dente van Soweto die volgende dag ’n optog gaan hou. Teen 6:00 vm het ons motorbestuurder vir my en Sophie Thema opgetel en na Soweto geneem.

Teen 8:00 het die optogte begin. ’n Konvooi polisievoertuie het opgedaag …

’n Wit polisieman het ’n stok geswaai en geskreeu:

‘Weg is julle. Ons gee julle drie minute.’

‘Ons gaan skiet,’ het hy gesê, en het ’n handwapen uitgeruk. Hy het direk gemik na die studente en twee skote gevuur. Hel het losgebars.

Ek onthou ek het omgedraai en vir Hector sien val. Hy was die eerste een. Ek het gesien hoe Mbuyisa Makhubu hom opgetel het en in my rigting gehardloop, saam met Hector se suster, Antoinette.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geskiedenis graad 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11062/1.1
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